APUSH Period 1 Study Guide

Pueblo Indians
-Economy based on trade
-In the New Mexico Area
-The men hunted and waged war while women kept the house
-Excellent farmers
Chinook Indians
-Their diet mostly consisted of fish
-Skilled traders
-On the Northwest Coast
Iroquois Indians
-Mostly farmers, but also hunted, gathered, and fished
-Very religious
-In New York
Algonquin Indians
-In Southwest Canada
-Very active for trade
Smallpox
A highly contagious viral disease characterized by fever, weakness, and skin eruption with pustules that form scabs of the face and body; responsible for killing Native Americans.
Mestizo
A person of mixed Native American and European ancestry.
Zambo
A person of mixed Native American and African ancestry.
Columbian Exchange
An exchange of goods, ideas, culture, and diseases from the Old World (Europe, Asia and Africa) to the New World (North and South America) and vice versa.
Encomienda System
A legal system that was employed mainly by the Spanish crown during the colonization of the Americas to regulate Native American labor
Christopher Columbus
-Discovered America
-Motivated by wealth
Juan Ponce de León
-Led the first European expedition to Florida
-Searched for the fountain of youth
-First Governor of Puerto Rico
St. Augustine, 1565
-A fort that was created by the Spanish in Florida
-Located at the fountain of youth
Walter Raleigh
-Searched for the “City of Gold” for England
-Led the 2nd expedition to EL Dorado
Roanoke, 1586
The 1st attempt to colonize by Queen Elizabeth I; The ship left to get more supplies, but when it came back everybody was gone
Sextant
A navigation tool that used degrees to determine a ship’s latitude and longitude by measuring the altitudes of stars
Joint Stock Companies
Businesses in which a group of people invest together. The investors then share in the companies’ profits and losses. Joint Stock Companies helped merchants raise money while reducing the individual risk of starting a business for each investor.
Juan de Sepúlveda
A Spanish humanist philosopher and theologian who claimed that Native Americans couldn’t govern themselves
Bartolomé de Las Casas
A spanish historian that argued for social reform. He was the first appointed “Protector of Indians.”
Spanish Mission System
Christian Missions during the 15th-17th centuries in Mexico that tried to convert the indigenous people
Juan de Oñate
A Spanish Conquistador that founded the first settlement in New Mexico. He also served as the first Governor of New Mexico
Maroons
Runaway slaves in the New World
African American Religion
-Animistic, commonly orally passed down
-Often times each tribe had their own religion
Astrolabe
A tool used by astronomers, navigators, and astrologers to determine their location by using the stars
Conquistadors
Spanish Explorers that went out into the new world in hopes to gain wealth from their discoveries