APUSH Chapter 40

Flashcard maker : Pat Coker
Proposition 13
1978 proposition passed by California which slashed property taxes and forced painful cuts in government services; this “tax revolt” reflected the growing anti-big government, anti-welfare sentiment that Reagan capitalized on during his presidential campaign.
boll weevils
Southern conservative Democrats who abandoned their own party’s leadership to follow Reagan’s smaller-government policies, cutting programs such as food stamps and job training.
supply-side economics
Economic theory embraced by the Reagan administration; held that tax reductions and fiscal conservatism would stimulate new investment, boost productivity, and foster dramatic economic growth.
Reaganomics
The Reagan administration’s supply-side economic policies, which included far-reaching tax reforms;although these policies led to economic recovery, they also widened the gap between rich and poor.
SDI (Strategic Defense Initiative)
Reagan’s proposed missile-defense system; featured orbiting battle stations in space that could fire laser beams to vaporize intercontinental missiles on liftoff; popularly known as “Star Wars”, Reagan described it as an “astrodome” shield over America; scientifically impossible and astronomically expensive, the initiative was part of Reagan’s plan to force the Soviets’ hand.
Sandinistas
Anti-American Nicaraguan revolutionaries who had deposed their long-tem dictator in 1978; while Carter had attempted to foster good relations with them, Reagan took a reactionary stance and accused the regime of turning their country into a forward base for Soviet and Cuban penetration of Central America.
contras
Rebels who opposed the anti-American government in Nicaragua; provided with covert aid by the Reagan administration and CIA.
glasnost
Gorbachev’s policy of “openness”, which allowed for free speech and a measure of political liberty.
perestroika
Gorbachev’s policy of “restructuring”, which adopted many of the free-market practices of the capitalist West; aimed at reviving the Soviet economy.
INF Treaty
US-Soviet treaty signed by Reagan and Gorbachev that banned all intermediate-range nuclear missiles from Europe, signaling the imminent end of the Cold War.
Iran-Contra Affair
Scandal that erupted when it was discovered that the American government was covertly arranging arms sales to Iran in exchange for aid in obtaining the release of American hostages; the money the US collected in these transactions was funneled to the contras in Nicaragua, violating a Congressional ban; when news broke of these dealings, a congressional committee condemned the administration and Reagan’s reputation was tarnished.
Moral Majority
Conservative, right-wing political organization founded by evangelical Christian preacher, Jerry Falwell; preached against sexual permissiveness, abortion, feminism, and gay rights; used radio, direct-mail marketing, and “televangelism” to reach huge audiences and raise large sums of money to finance their causes.
Black Monday
The largest one-day stock market decline in history, on October 19, 1987; followed the savings and loan crisis that brought a wave of bank closures.
CIS (Commonwealth of Independent States)
Confederation of fifteen former Soviet states that came into being after the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991; these new governments repudiated communism and embraced democratic reforms and free-market economies.
Operation Desert Storm
Land-based conflict between the US and its UN allies and Iraq; when Saddam Hussein’s army invaded oil-rich Kuwait, the United Nations, led by the US, launched an attack on Iraq using ballistic missiles then followed up with this land attack; Saddam accepted a cease-fire after four days and Kuwait was liberated, although no regime change was forced and Saddam stayed in power.
ADA (Americans with Disabilities Act)
Landmark legislation passed in 1990 that prohibited discrimination against people with physical or mental disabilities; part of George H.W. Bush’s pledge for a “kinder, gentler America.”
Ronald Reagan
Elected president in 1980 on the Republican ticket, he was committed to fiscal and social conservatism and sought to dismantle the welfare state and reverse the political evolution of the preceding half-century through budget and tax cuts; his administration saw the Iran-Contra affair, a widening gap between rich and poor, the rise of the religious right, and conservatism in the courts with rulings against affirmative action and abortion rights.
Margaret Thatcher
Conservative British Prime Minister, her economic and social policies reflected those of Ronald Reagan.
Mikhail Gorbachev
Soviet leader who was committed to radical reforms, including glasnost and perestroika; pushed a nuclear disarmament agenda with the US, leading to the INF Treaty and ushering in the end of the Cold War; resigned in 1991 as the communist regime collapsed and the USSR dissolved into the Commonwealth.
Saddam Hussein
Iraqi dictator; his attack on neighboring Kuwait triggered a US-led UN invasion; forced to accept a cease-fire, although he was allowed to stay in power.
Jerry Falwell
Evangelical Christian minister who founded the Moral Majority, one of the most powerful political organizations of the religious right.
Sandra Day O’Connor
First female Supreme Court justice; one of three conservative judges appointed by Reagan.
George H.W. Bush
Elected president in 1988, promising a “kinder, gentler America” and “no new taxes”; his administration saw the end of the Cold War.
Boris Yeltsin
President of the Russian Republic, he organized a failed coup to oust Gorbachev, but soon emerged as a dominant leader in the CIS after the dissolution of the USSR.
Nelson Mandela
African leader who spent 27 years in jail as a result of his efforts to end apartheid; freed in 1990, he was later elected as president of South Africa.
Manuel Noriega
Panamanian dictator and drug lord; captured by US troops in 1989.
Norman Schwarzkopf
American general during the Gulf War, known as “Stormin’ Norman”; led Operation Desert Storm, part of his strategy to follow continuous bombing with a ground strike.
Clarence Thomas
Conservative African American Supreme Court justice; nominated by Bush, he was strongly opposed by liberal groups because of his views on affirmative action and abortion; after his Senate hearing, it was revealed that he had been accused of sexual harassment, leading the Judiciary Committee to reopen the hearings; the televised details of the charges, made by Anita Hill, transfixed the American public.

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