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Apush Chapter 19 Vocab Test Questions

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“Liberal Internationalism”
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This was Woodrow Wilson’s foreign policy of his articulated vision of America’s relationship with the rest of the world. This policy stated that the conviction of political and economic progress went hand in hand. This help create a greater worldwide freedom that would follow from the increased amount of American investment and trade overseas.
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Panama Canal Zone
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Roosevelt wanted to engineer a canal which would have to split up Colombia and Panama. Roosevelt wanted to facilitate and be a proponent of the naval development of America. However Colombia (which Panama was a part of) refused to give the land up for this project in 1903 so Roosevelt help a uprising take place (which was led by Philippe Bunau-Varilla) and an American gunboat prevented the Colombian army from suppressing the rebellion. After Panama had got their independence Bunau-Varilla signed a treaty that gave the United States the right to construct and operate once finished and total sovereignty over the Canal Zone which was a ten-mile-wide strip of land that the canal would run through. When this was finished (in 1914) it reduced the voyage by sea between the East and West Coasts by around 8,000 miles. The rule over the Canal Zone would be a continuos source of tension and in 1977, President Carter would negotiate treaties to turn over the canal and the Canal Zone to Panama during the year 2000.
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Yellow Fever
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This caused the failed attempt by the French engineer Ferdinand de Lesseps during 1879-1881 to create a canal through Panama and Columbia. This mainly failed because of the yellow fever that caused a toll on his workers and also malaria. Also, he had insufficient funding for it.
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Roosevelt Corollary
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This was reflected after Roosevelt’s actions in Panama regarding the Panama Canal and the Canal Zone. This said that the US had the right to be “an international police power” in the Western Hemisphere (this was a significant expansion of the Monroe Doctrine).
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“Moral Imperialism”
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It was Wilson’s foreign policy that was saying that people should go out and do what they have the right to do. Go out and sell their goods and have a high purpose in their life other than just profit. These other countries should be able to convert to American principles. This produced many more military interventions in Latin America (more than any other president before or after him). This showed what would be shown many times in history that most presidents who speak about freedom the most usually intervene in the affairs of other countries the most.
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Sinking of the Lusitania
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This was when the war first broke out and Wilson said that he would not join in however the year after the War of 1812 things got worse. Britain declared a naval blockade on Germany which ended up stopping American vessels, Germany was launching submarine warfare for ships entering and exiting the British ports and in May of 1915 a German submarine sank Lusitania which was a British liner carrying a large cache of arms. This caused the death of 1,198 passengers which 124 of them were Americans. After this Wilson wrote a protest letter that was very strong and the secretary of state Bryan resigned, afraid that this would led to military intervention. Bryan thought it was best to not travel on the ships of belligerents but Wilson thought that this was show a retreat from the freedom on the seas. The sinking of Lusitania made the American public very angry and some get an even stronger opinion that they should get ready to enter the war. By the end of 1915, Wilson had started a crash program, which was the policy of “preparedness,” that would expand the navy and army.
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Zimmerman Telegram
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This was in March of 1817 when the German foreign secretary, Arthur Zimmerman, reached out to Mexico to get them to join the war against the United States and told them that they would get Mexico back some of the land that they lost in the Mexican War (1846-1848). However, this telegram was intercepted by British spies which made it public.
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Fourteen Points
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This was in January of 1918 when Wilson wanted to show that the war was being fought for a moral cause. This was one of the clearest statements of America’s aims for the war and oh his vision for a new international order. In this were the principles of self-determination for all of the nations, freedom of the seas, open diplomacy (which would end secret treaties), free trade, the creation of a “general association of nations” that would preserve the peace, and the readjustment of colonial claims.
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Selective Service Act
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In May of 1917 this act made it possible so 24 million men were required to sign up for the draft and the army went from 120,000 men to 5 million.
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War Industries Board
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This was head by the Wall Street financier Bernard Baruch and this board took control over everything for war production. They presided over the distribution of the raw materials to how much the goods would cost. They made standardized specifications for everything so they could increase efficiency.
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Committee on Public Information
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In April of 1917 and Wilson’s administration created it so that they could show Americans and the world (as George Creel put it who was the director), “the cause that compelled America to take arms in defense of its liberties and free institutions.” They overflowed the country with pro-war propaganda, posters to pamphlets, newspapers advertisements, and motion pictures. It also sent 75,000 Four-Minute Men that gave brief talks to audiences everywhere.
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Espionage Act
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This was in 1917 when the federal government made laws that restricted the freedom of speech. This also prohibited spying and interfering with the draft and false statements that might show military success. In 1918, Eugene Debs was convicted for giving an antiwar speech.
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Sedition Act
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In 1918 this act made it so that printed or spoken statements that went against the form of the government in the war or that advocated interference with the war effort a crime.
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American Protective League
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250,000 members who helped the Justice Department find critics and radicals of the war by spying on people and having “slacker raids” where many men (thousands) were stopped on the streets and required to make a draft registration card.
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Intelligence Quotient (IQ)
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This term was introduced by Lewis Terman who was a Stanford University psychologist in 1916. This term said that a single number would show a individual’s mental ability and capacity. These test administered to recruits by the army showed that blacks and immigrants had a lower IQ than white Protestants.
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Brownsville Affair
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Black soldiers in 1906 shot their guns and killed one resident in Brownsville, Texas. However, none of the soldiers would name off the people and Roosevelt dishonorably discharged three black companies, including 156 men (this included 6 winners of the Congressional Medal of Honor). This gained more enthusiasm with the Progressive intellectuals for Roosevelt’s (who believed in Anglo-Saxon racial destiny) New Nationalism.
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National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
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Du Bois joined with a group of mostly white reformers after being shocked by the lynching in Springfield, Illinois (which happened to be Lincoln’s home during his adult years) and joined the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). This group started a long struggle for the enforcement of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments. They won a few victories, such as in Bailey v. Alabama, however, the Progressive era saw no progress towards giving racial justice to African Americans.
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Garveyites
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This was a widespread support system for that came up for the Universal Negro Improvement Association. This was a movement for black independence and self-reliance for African Americans that was launched by Marcus Garvey. Freedom for garveyites meant that there would be self-determination and be able to enjoy the same internationally recognized identity enjoyed by everyone around them.
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United States in Russia
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Allied forces (French, Americans, Japanese, and British) landed in Russia in the summer of 1918 to help aid the opponents of Lenin’s rom the civil war. The last of these people did not leave until 1920. Many of Wilson’s policies shoed contradictions with policies toward the Soviet Union however, Wilson still wanted to help the new government while there was still a fear of communism.
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Red Scare
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Between 1919-1920 when there was an intense time where there was a lot of political intolerance that was inspired by the postwar strike wave and there were many social tensions and fears that were generated by the Russian Revolution.