apush ch11 vocab

Flashcard maker : Jonathan Walsh
Antebellum Period
an expression derived from Latin that means “before war”. In United States history and historiography, “antebellum” is commonly used, in lieu of “pre-Civil War,” in reference to the period of increasing sectionalism that led up to the American Civil War. In that sense, the Antebellum Period is often considered to have begun with the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854, though it is sometimes stipulated to extend back as early as 1812.
2nd Great Awakening
the second great religious revival in United States history and consisted of renewed personal salvation experienced in revival meetings. Major leaders included Charles Grandison Finney, Lyman Beecher, Barton Stone, Peter Cartwright, Asahel Nettleton, and James Finley. It also encouraged an eager evangelical attitude that later reappeared in American life in causes dealing with prison reform, temperance, women’s suffrage, and the crusade to abolish slavery.
Timothy Dwight
an American Congregationalist minister, theologian, educator, and author. He was the eighth president of Yale College, from 1795 to 1817.
in a Christian context generally refers to a specific period of spiritual renewal in the life of the Church. While elements such as mass conversions and perceived beneficial effects on the moral climate of a given
is a belief held by some Christian denominations that there will be a Golden Age or Paradise on Earth in which “Christ will reign” prior to the final judgment and future eternal state (the New Heavens and New Earth). This belief is derived primarily from the book of Revelation 20:1-6. Millennialism as such is a specific form of Millenarianism.
term used to describe the adherents, practitioners, followers or constituents of Mormonism. The term most often refers to a member of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, which is commonly called the Mormon Church. The LDS Church believes that “Mormon” should properly be applied only to its members. However, the term is often used more broadly to describe any individual or group that believes in the Book of Mormon, and other Latter Day Saint groups. According to the Book of Mormon, Mormon is the name of the prophet who compiled the book of scripture known as the Book of Mormon.
Joseph Smith
founder of the Latter Day Saint movement, also known as Mormonism, and an important religious and political figure in the Un
Brigham Young
an American leader in the Latter Day Saint movement. He was the president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) from 1847 until his death, the founder of Salt Lake City and the first governor of the Utah Territory, United States. Brigham Young University was named in his honor.
Romantic Movement
lasted from approximately 1750-1850 A.D. This era was revolting against the rationalism of the eighteenth century. The authors of this time period wrote about the heart and the inner life of the self. They also wrote about the environment. The writing of this period changed to topics such as faraway places, the medieval past, folklore and legends, nature, and the common people. This time period also centered on horror, the supernatural, and gloom.
a group of new ideas in literature, religion, culture, and philosophy that emerged in New England in the early to middle 19th century. Transcendentalism began as a protest against the general state o
Ralph Waldo Emerson
was an American essayist, philosopher, poet, and leader of the Transcendentalist movement in the early 19th century. His teachings directly influenced the growing New Thought movement of the mid 1800s.
Henry David Thoreau
an American author, naturalist, transcendentalist, tax resister, development critic, sage writer and philosopher. He is best known for his book Walden, a reflection upon simple living in natural surroundings, and his essay, Civil Disobedience, an argument for individual resistance to civil government in moral opposition to an unjust state.
Brook Farm – George Ripley
A transcendentalist Utopian experiment, put into practice by transcendentalist former Unitarian minister George Ripley at a farm in West Roxbury, Massachusetts, at that time nine miles from Boston. The community, in operation from 1841 to 1847, was inspired by the socialist concepts of Charles Fourier. Fourierism was the belief that there could be a utopian society where people could share together to have a better lifestyle.
Margaret Fuller
a journalist, critic, and women’s rights activist associated with the American transcendental movement. She was the first full-time female book reviewer in journalism. Her book Woman in the Nineteenth Century is considered the first major feminist work in the United States.
Utopian Communities
intentional communities created to perfect American society had become institutionalized in American thought by the 1840s. Various groups, struggling under the pressures of urbanization and industrialization, challenged the traditional norms and social conservatism of American society. Their desire to create a perfect world often lay in sharp contradiction to the world in which they lived, one in which capitalism, the Industrial Revolution, immigration, and the tension between the individual and the community challenged older forms of living.
A mid-eighteenth century offshoot of the Quakers founded in England by Mother Ann Lee; Shakers performed communal living and strict celibacy
Robert Owen/ New Harmony
A Welsh socialist and social reformer. He is considered the father of the cooperative movement. He experimented through the New Harmony community, a utopian settlement in Indiana lasting from 1825 to 1827. It had 1,000 settlers, but a lack of authority caused it to break up.
Joseph Humphrey Noyes-Oneida Community
founded the group and founded the beliefs of the society. A group of socio-religious perfectionists who lived in New York. Practiced polygamy, communal property, and communal raising of children.
Charles Fourier-Fourier Phalanxes
French utopian socialist and began some form of feminism. Fourier declared that concern and cooperation were the secrets of social success. He believed workers would be recompensed for their labors according to their contribution. Fourier saw such cooperation occurring in communities he called “phalanxes”. Phalanxes were based around structures called “grand hotels”. These buildings were four level apartment complexes where the richest had the uppermost apartments and the poorest enjoyed a ground floor residence.
Horace Greeley
An American newspaper editor and founder of the Republican Party. His New York Tribune was America’s most influential newspaper 1840-1870. Greeley used it to promote the Whig and Republican parties, as well as antislavery and a host of reforms.
George Caleb Bingham
An American realist artist, whose paintings depicted life on the frontier.
William S. Mount
Contemporary of the Hudson River school; began as a history painter but moved to depicting scenes form everyday life.
Thomas Cole
Founder of the Hudson River school, famous for his landscape paintings
Frederick Church
Central figure in the Hudson River School, pupil of Thomas Cole, known for his landscapes and for painting colossal views of exotic places
Hudson River School
Founded by Thomas Cole, first native school of landscape painting in the U.S.; attracted artists rebelling against the neoclassical tradition, painted many scenes of New York’s Hudson River
Washington Irving
Author, diplomat, wrote The Sketch Book, which included “Rip Van Winkle” and “The Legend of Sleepy Hollow,” the first American to be recognized in England (and elsewhere) as a writer
James Fennimore Cooper
Wrote numerous sea-stories as well as the historical romances known as the Leather stocking Tales, featuring frontiersman Natty Bumppo. Among his most famous works is the romantic novel The Last of the Mohicans, which many people consider his masterpiece.
Nathaniel Hawthorne
Originally a transcendentalist; later rejected them and became a leading anti-transcendentalist. He was a descendant of Puritan settlers. The Scarlet Letter shows the hypocrisy and insensitivity of New England puritans by showing their cruelty to a woman who has committed adultery and is forced to wear a scarlet “A”.
The practice of moderation (chiefly describing sobriety). It was one of the five “cardinal” virtues held to be vital to society in Hellenic culture. It is one of the Four Cardinal Virtues considered central to Christian behavior by the Catholic Church and is an important tenet of the moral codes of other world religions
American Temperance Society
Was established in 1826. Within five years there were 2,220 local chapters in the U.S. with 170,000 members who had taken a pledge to abstain from drinking alcoholic beverages
Temperance movement which involved relying on each other, sharing alcoholic experiences and relying upon divine help, to help keep each other sober. Total abstinence from alcohol was their goal. The group taught sobriety and preceded Alcoholics Anonymous by 100 years.
Women’s Christian Temperance Movement (WTCU)
Worked for legislation to moderate the use of intoxicating drink despite their inability to vote. Linked drinking to poverty, adultery, social crime and domestic violence.
Asylum Movement
Efforts to propose government legislation to improve treatment of the insane with larger institutions and proper environmental and educational conditions.
Dorothea Dix
an American activist on behalf of the indigent insane who, through a vigorous program of lobbying state legislatures and the United States Congress, created the first generation of American mental asylums. During the Civil War, she served as Superintendent of Army Nurses.
Thomas Gallaudet
a renowned American pioneer in the education of the deaf. He helped found and was for many years the principal of the first institution for the education of the deaf in North America. When opened in 1817, it was called the “Hartford School for the Deaf” in Connecticut, but it is now known as the American School for the Deaf.
Samuel Gridley Howe
a prominent 19th century United States physician, abolitionist, and an advocate of education for the blind. He was the husband of Julia Ward Howe and the father of Pulitzer prize-winning writers Laura E. Richards and Maud Howe Elliott.
Penitentiary system
Place of confinement for those accused or convicted of contravening the laws of the state; after conviction, most countries claim to aim also at rehabilitation and deterrence as well as punishment. For major crimes, life imprisonment (or death in some countries or US states; see capital punishment) may be the sentence.
Auburn system
a penal method of the 19th century in which persons worked during the day in groups and were kept in solitary confinement at night, with enforced silence at all times. The silent system evolved during the 1820s at Auburn Prison in Auburn, N.Y., as an alternative to and modification of the Pennsylvania system of solitary confinement, which it gradually replaced in the United States. Whigs favored this system because it promised to rehabilitate criminals by teaching them personal discipline and respect for work, property, and other people.
Horace Mann
an American education reformer, and a member of the U.S. House of Representatives (Republican) from 1848 to 1853. He was a brother-in-law to author Nathaniel Hawthorne, their wives being sisters.
Public school movement
Statewide Common School System. Horace Mann, head of newly formed Massachusetts State Board of Education, supervised the creation of a statewide common school system.
McGuffey Reader
One of the first known textbooks, it is estimated that at least 120 million copies of McGuffey’s Readers were sold between 1836 and 1960, sell about 30,000 copies a year. McGuffey’s Readers are still in use today in some school systems, and by parents for home schooling purposes.
Women’s Rights Movement
refers to the freedoms inherently possessed by women and girls of all ages, which may be institutionalized, ignored or suppressed by law, custom, and behavior in a particular society.
Grimke Sisters
Abolitionists and suffragettes. The sisters came from South Carolina in an aristocratic family, with an Episcopalian judge who owned slaves father. Both sisters became abolitionists, and after converting to the Quaker faith, they joined Society of Friends. In 1835, Angela wrote an anti-slavery letter to Abolitionist leader William Lloyd Garrison, who published it in, The Liberator. They spoke at abolitionist meetings. In 1837, Angelina was invited to be the first woman to speak at the Massachusetts State Legislature. Sarah and Angelina Grimke wrote Letter on the Condition of Women and the Equality of the Sexes (1837) – objecting to male opposition to their anti-slavery activities.
Letter on the Condition of Women and Equality of the Sexes
Used the individualist feminist approach of comparing slavery to marriage for the wife where women are treated as property and have little to no rights especially in economic affairs of the house hold. Written by Angelina and Sarah Grimke
Lucretia Mott
A Quaker who attended an anti-slavery convention in 1840 and her party of women was not recognized. She and Stanton called the first women’s right convention in New York in 1848
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
A member of the women’s right’s movement in 1840. She was a mother of seven, and she shocked other feminists by advocating suffrage for women at the first Women’s Right’s Convention in Seneca, New York 1848. Stanton read a “Declaration of Sentiments” which declared “all men and women are created equal.”
Seneca Falls Convention
First women’s rights convention in American History. Issued “Declaration of Sentiments”-declared “all men and women are created equal” and listed women’s grievances against laws and customs that discriminated against them.
Susan B. Anthony
Led the campaign for equal voting, legal, and property rights for women. Campaigned with Elizabeth Cady Stanton.
American Colonization Society
society which established the colony of Liberia, to which freed blacks were sent from the United States. The colony later declared its independence.
William Lloyd Garrison
An abolitionist who became editor of the Boston publication the Liberator in 1831. Under his leadership the Liberator gained great fame. He attacked everything from slave holding, to moderate abolitionists. He supported northern secession
American Antislavery Society
Founded in 1833 by William Lloyd Garrison and other abolitionists. Garrison burned the Constitution as a proslavery document. Argued for “no Union with slaveholders” until they repented for their sins by freeing their slaves.
The militant effort to do away with slavery. It began in the north in the 1700’s. Becoming a major issue in the 1830’s, it dominated politics by the 1840’s. Congress became a battle ground between the pro and anti slavery forces
Liberty Party
A political party that started during the two party systems in the 1840’s.The party’s main platform was bringing an end to slavery by political and legal means. The party was originally part of the American Anti-slavery however; they split because they believed there was a more practical way to end slavery than Garrison’s moral crusade.
Frederick Douglass
an American abolitionist, editor, orator, author, statesman and reformer. Called “The Sage of Anacostia” and “The Lion of Anacostia”, Douglass is one of the most prominent figures in African-American history and United States history. In 1872, Douglass was nominated as the vice presidential candidate on the Equal Rights Party ticket with Victoria Woodhull, the first woman to run for President of the USA
Harriet Tubman
American abolitionist. Born a slave on a Maryland plantation, she escaped to the North in 1849 and became the most renowned conductor on the Underground Railroad, leading more than 300 slaves to freedom.
David Ruggles
an anti-slavery activist who was active in the New York Committee of Vigilance and the Underground Railroad. He claimed to have led over six hundred people, including friend and fellow abolitionist Frederick Douglass, to freedom in the North.
Sojourner Truth
American abolitionist and feminist. Born into slavery, she escaped in 1827 and became a leading preacher against slavery and for the rights of women.
William Still
African American abolitionist and author; 18th son of ex-slaves; wrote The Underground Railroad which chronicles how he helped 649 slaves escape to freedom via the Underground Railroad
David Walker
An American women’s rights and temperance advocate. She presented her views in her own monthly paper, The Lily, which she began publishing in 1849. When Amelia was 22, she married a lawyer by the name of Dexter Bloomer. One of the major causes promoted by Amelia was a change in dress standards for women so that they would be less restrictive.
Henry Highland
an African American abolitionist and orator. An advocate of militant abolitionism, Garnet was a prominent member of the abolition movement that led against moral suasion toward more political action. Renowned for his skills as a public speaker, he urged blacks to take action and claim their own destinies. Garnet was the first black minister to preach to the United States House of Representatives.
Nat Turner
an American slave who started the largest slave rebellion in the antebellum southern United States, in Southampton County, Virginia. His methodical slaughter of white civilians during the uprising makes his legacy controversial. At birth he was not given a surname, but was recorded solely by his given name, Nat. In accordance with a common practice, he was often called by the surname of his owner, Samuel Turner.
American Peace Society
pacifist society founded on the principles of William Ladd. Merged societies from New Hampshire, New York, Maine, and Massachusetts.
Sylvester Graham
American clergyman whose advocacy of health regimen emphasizing temperance and vegetarianism found lasting expression in graham cracker
Amelia Bloomer
An American women’s rights and temperance advocate. She presented her views in her own monthly paper, The Lily, which she began publishing in 1849. When Amelia was 22, she married a lawyer by the name of Dexter Bloomer. One of the major causes promoted by Amelia was a change in dress standards for women so that they would be less restrictive.
Get an explanation on any task
Get unstuck with the help of our AI assistant in seconds