AP World History Units 1-2

Flashcard maker : Henry Smith
Trade
Currency developed, interaction happened
Change and Continuity
Change: Development of agriculture, Continuity: nonrepresentative type governments throughout the world
Demography
Neolithic Revolution: Discovery of agriculture, also pastoral nomadism developed
Technology
Use of metals: Copper to bronze and then to iron
Social
Food surplus leads to job specialization, and social structure starts on economic roles.
Families: Women excluded from positions of power (except for Africa)
Culture
Cave paintings to architecture, writing for keeping records and communication, world religions
Cooperation
settle in larger groups to cooperate
Cities
surplus and job specialization,:
Civilizations
Organized governments, religion, social structure, job specialization, public works, writing, arts and architecture
Governments
Most were nonrepresentative monarchies or oligarchies: Democracy or republics were uncommon
Empires
Expanded original area of one state and conquered surrounding neighbors to build and empire
Neolithic Revolution
Demographics: Slash-and-burn agriculture
Society: Job specialization and surplus of food, gender roles had women become more domestic and men rose in importance
Religion: Usually related to nature and life
Technology: Copper, bronze, and the wheel
Pastoral Nomadism
Alternative to agriculture during Neolithic Revolution alternative: depend on herd for survival and travel to find grass or steppe for grazing Learn fighting skills
River Civilizations
Rivers provide transport and communication and water
Mesopotamia
Fertile Crescent: Sumer Society has social order
Egypt
Nile River: Floods at right times, developed hieroglyphics. Women can take on jobs, but not pharaoh status
Indus
Indus River: Language not understood, but polytheistic. Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro: City planning and social hierarchy
Aryans
Nomadic Indo-European people, entered India. Had the Vedas, and started the caste system
Shang
Developed around Yellow River. Started development of Chinese language, also developed bronze metallurgy
Zhou
Further cements Chinese tradition: Mandate of Heaven, veneration of ancestors. Iron metallurgy makes it to China
Mesoamerica
Olmecs settle near Gulf of Mexico: San Lorenzo and La Venta, and Colossal Heads
South America
Andean heartland: beans, peanuts, sweet potatoes. Chavin religious cult
Hinduism
Dharma, karma, samsara, reincarnation, moksha, Brahma and its avatars. Role of Women: not included in religious things
Caste system
Impacts Hinduism: Brahmins, ksatriyas, vaisyas, shudras and untouchables: purity and pollution
Buddhism
Siddhartha Gautama, enlightenment under a bodhi tree for the 4 noble truths and eightfold path to give up desire and get to nirvana.
Missionaries.
Role of Women: Can participate in religion
Asoka
Mauryan emperor, supported Buddhism
Confucianism
Filial piety, benevolence, correct actions and morals: 5 key relationships.
Role of Women: Men superior to women
Daoism
Laozi: Way of nature, wu wei, and government is useless. Encouraged relaxation: end of Warring States
Legalism
Man is inherently evil and must have strict laws and punishment
Judaism
Exodus and YHWH, 10 commandments and the covenant. Foundation of Israel as Promised Land, then Diaspora by Romans. Monotheism.
Christianity
Jesus born in Judea, preaches Kingdom of God, eternal life, and his disciples write the New Testament. Role of Women: equal in eyes of God
Edict of Milan
Makes Christianity legal in Roman Empire
Nestorian Christianity
Form of Christianity, continues to spread across Silk Roads into Cental Asia, India and China
Greece
Politics: Center around polis, City-state (Sparta and Athens).
Persian War
Greek cities in Anatolia resented Persian Empire rule and started the war: Moral victory for Athenians
Delian League
Alliance of Greeks against the Persians, but leadership caused resentment
Peloponnesian War
Sparta vs. Athens, weakens Greece, so stronger power from Macedonia takes over
Alexander the Great
Conquered Persia after his father (King Phillip II), and northwest regions of Indian subcontinent.
Hellenistic Empire and Era
Empire left by Alexander the Great: Divided among Antigonid (Greece and Macedonia), Ptolemaic (Egypt) and Seleucid (Persia)
Greece
Economy: Relied heavily on trade by Mediterranean, and caravan through Persia to the west
Greece
Society: Patriarchal, women under male authority unless became a priestess.
Literacy existed among upper-class Greek women.
Slaves exist.
Greece
Culture: Polytheistic religion. Socrates, Plato, Aristotle do philosophy, astronomy, ethics, biology, physics etc.
India
Politics: Small decentralized regional kingdoms (Continuity: decentralization remains)
Mauryans
Chandragupta Maurya: Fill power-vacuum after Alexander the Great, sets up bureaucracy. Ashoka continues conquest, then rule with morals. After Ashoka’s death, India returns to decentralization but stays with trade
Gupta Empire
Chandra Gupta conquers many of regional kingdoms (other than south), but leaves local administration in power. Invasion of White Huns causes weakening
India
Economy: Agriculture surplus encouraged towns and marketplaces. Long-distance trade w/ China, Southeast Asia, and Mediterranean basin: Silk Roads. Sailors ride monsoons.
India
Society: Patriarchal but with Caste system
India
Culture: Buddhism and Hinduism, stresses symbolism instead of representation. Geometry, algebra, pi, zero, decimals, and numbers
China
Politics: Shang, Zhou, Era of Warring States, Qin, Han
Qin Dynasty
Qin Shihuangdi: Ends era of warring states and starts central bureaucracy. Sponsors Great wall, standardizes law, currency, weights, measures and script.
Han Dynasty
Wu Di: build toads and canals, university, Confucianism, civil service exams. Has Confucian ideals about ruling. Foreign policy of expansion to Vietnam, Korea and Central Asia
China
Economy: agriculture, flourished with long-distance trade. Silk Roads flourish.
Tributary system of trade
Followed by Han: Policy was that Han didn’t need to trade with neighbors, so they demanded tribute and give trade goods in return. Also gifts were sent to nomads to prevent invasions
China
Society: Patriarchal; women were useful to marry. Scholar-gentry was highest class, able to take civil service exams. Merchants considered low.
China
Culture: Family is the unit, made of living and dead. Filial piety etc. by Confucianism. Daoism promotes reverence for nature. Invention of wheelbarrow, watermills, sternpost rudder and compass, and paper.
Rome
Politics: Etruscan king overthrown, and republic established. Then empire took over.
Roman Republic
People elect representatives: 2 consuls elected by assembly dominated by patricians. Senate advisors also patricians. Plebians (commoners) later gained right to elect tribunes to veto.
Roman mpire
Wealth and power of conquest causes problems, and growth of cities causes more lower class and poverty.
Julius Caesar
Led Roman Army to conquer Gaul, and made himself dictator for life. Centralized military and politics, and started building projects. Assasinated.
Augustus Caesar
Octavian: monarchy disguised as a republic: continues expansion and stimulates growing economy
Pax Romana
Roman Peace (2 and a half centuries starting with Augustus)
Twelve Tables
Rome’s system of law
Rome
Economy: extensive roads, good for trade and creating markets. Tax revenue strengthened empire. Uniform currency used, but Latin for politics and Romans, while Greek for trade
Rome
Society: Patriarchal, pater familias rules as father of the family.
Rome
Culture: Inspired by Greeks (polytheistic religion, columns, arches). Jews mostly tolerated until rebellions, then Diaspora. Christians were seen as a threat and were persecuted. Engineering advanced
Edict of Milan
Legalized Christianity to stop the persecution, and Emperor Theodosius proclaims Christianity as official religion in 380 CE
Silk Roads
Originated on diplomatic mission to Central Asia by nomads during Han: kicks off silk trade. Buddhism gets spread along.
Indian Ocean
Sea version of Silk Roads: Went through to Persian Gulf. Mostly by Malay and Indian sailors. Buddhism and Hinduism spread.
Mediterranean Sea
Roman Lake: Syra to Spain to North Africa: Free from pirates and trade thrived
Disease
Measles, smallpox, bubonic plague: Roman Empire population dropped by 25%, and trade declines
Bantu Migration
Bantu occupied most of Sub-Saharan Africa: Migrate to new settlements as resources are lacking. Bantu language and culture spreads, along with clearing land and expanding agriculture. Bananas from India are grown.
Many languages today can be traced back to Bantu migrations.
Polynesian Migration
Settlement of the islands could be accidental or planned. Yams, taros, breadfruit, bananas and dogs, pigs, chickens spread. Hierarchical chiefdoms.
Fall of Han
Xiongnu after empire weakens from drop in tax revenue, corruption, population increase
Fall of Rome
Tax paying neglected, law enforcement problems, plagues and lack of strength in Roman armies against nomads
Fall of Gupta
Tax lack, regional powers, nomadic invasion of White Huns
Animism
Religious belief that focuses on roles of various gods and spirits in the natural world and in human events: Polytheistic
Caste System
Social system of Aryans divided people into 4 castes: Varnas. Each of 4 main castes had specific roles.
Classical
Period of great cultural significance in society before modern age: Usually refers to age of Athens in ancient Greece and Roman Republic/Empire. Also applied to others, eg. Qin Dynasty of China
Filial Piety
Form of respect shown by children to parents: Crucial to Confucian thought
Monotheism
Religious belief in one God: Judaism, Christianity, Islam
Neolithic Revolution
New Stone Age: Humans discover agriculture and settle into fixed communities
Nomadic
Way of life in which people do not have a settled home but rather move from place to place in order to find places for animals to forage
Pastoral
Group that herds domesticated animals for their livelihood, often nomadic
Polygamy
Cultural trait in which one person is married to more than 1 spouse at a time
Polytheism
Religious belief in more than 1 god
Silk Roads
Trade routes that linked Mediterranean area of Roman Empire with the Chinese Qin Dynasty: Silk textiles and other precious trade goods traveled. Flourished under Mongol period of 13 century.

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