Ap World History Unit 6

Flashcard maker : Mary Browning
Social Class
A group of people in a society who are considered nearly equal in status or community esteem, who regularly socialize among themselves both formally and informally, and who share behavioral norms, A category of people who have a similar standing or rank in a society based on wealth, education, power, prestige, and other valued resources.
Caste System
A social structure in which classes are determined by heredity, A Hindu social class system that controlled every aspect of daily life, a set of rigid social categories that determined not only a person’s occupation and economic potential, but also his or her position in society, A set of rigid categories in ancient India that determined a person’s occupation and economic potential as well as his or her position in society, based partially on skin color.
Reincarnation
In Hinduism and Buddhism, the process by which a soul is reborn continuously until it achieves perfect understanding, (Hinduism and Buddhism) Doctrine that person may be reborn successively into one of five classes of living beings (god or human or animal or hungry ghost or denizen of hell) depending on the person’s own actions, Being reborn into another body after death. A cornerstone of the Hindu faith, which justifies the Hindu Caste system. You can be reborn as any living thing (based on your Karma).
Dharma
A Hindu/Buddhist concept that was a guide to living in this world and at the same time pursuing spiritual goals. According to dharma a person should accept and live within ones caste. Although the Buddhist notion of dharma is that one should seek to decrease suffering., A Hindu/Buddhist concept that was a guide to living in this world and at the same time pursuing spiritual goals. The Hindu version states that a person should accept and live within ones caste. Although the Buddhist notion of this is that one should seek to decrease suffering., A person’s spiritual duties and obligations, must follow to achieve liberation, vary based on class, All Hindus must do their duty(job) and follow caste rules in order to be reborn into a higher caste.
Karma
(Hinduism and Buddhism) the effects of a person’s actions that determine his destiny in his next incarnation, An impartial force or principle of cause and effect that accounts for each person’s good and bad actions and determines their position of rebirth based upon each person’s actions in their previous lifetime., Belief that the end result of a persons good and bad acts resides the persons rebirth, A sort of record kept of all the good or bad things that a person has done in their life, which then affects them when they are reincarnated into their next life., A sort of record kept of all the good or bad things that a person has done in their life, which then affects them when they are reincarnated into their next life.
Jainism
A religion that branched off from Hinduism and was founded by Mahavira; its belief is that everything has a soul, and its purpose was to cleanse the soul. Some were extreme aesthetics., A religion founded in India in the sixth century B.C., whose members believe that everything in the universe has a soul and therefore should not be harmed., A religion founded in India in the 6th century BC, whose members believe that everything in the universe has a soul and therefore should not be harmed, A religion founded in India in the 6th century BC, whose members believe that everything in the universe has a soul and therefore should not be harmed. Most jains today are merchants and business people because they don’t harm things.
Buddhism
the teaching of Buddha that life is permeated with suffering caused by desire, that suffering ceases when desire ceases, and that enlightenment obtained through right conduct and wisdom and meditation releases one from desire and suffering and rebirth, A major religion that emerged in the 500s BC. Buddhism urged people to seek enlightenment through meditation and its founder was Siddhartha Gautama. He taught through the followings of the Eightfold Path (which he describes as right views, right aspirations, right speech, right conduct, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, and right contemplation)., – the greatest foreign cultural force (Confucianism was the greatest native force) – Buddhism was popular in China because it was flexible; could be added to Chinese religion – Everyone is equal in this religion (it is an equalizer to China) – There are answers to everything – Mahayana, the more flexible version, is the type of Buddhism that made its way to China. – EMPEROR FROM SUI DYNASTY EMBRACED BUDDISM – there was also a reaction against Buddhism in China – this reaction came from India during the Tang Dynasty – a lot of people felt that the Buddhist monasteries weren’t controlled enough
4 Nobel Truths
1. Human life is full of suffering 2. The cause of suffering is greed 3. there is an end to suffering 4. the way to end is to follow the middle path and to do that you must follow the 8th full path, 1. All life is suffering 2. The cause of suffering is desire 3. The elmination of desire eliminates suffering 4. The path to Nirvana is the 8 Fold Path, 1. All life is suffering (Duhkha) 2. The cause of suffering is desire 3. The cessation of desire is Nirvana 4. The path to Nirvana is the 8 Fold Path
8 Fold Path
To reach Nirvana 1. right views, 2. intention, 3. speech, 4. actions, 5. living, 6. effort, 7. mindfulness, 8. concentration, To reach Nirvana 1. right views, 2. intention, 3. speech, 4. actions, 5. living, 6. effort, 7. mindfulness, 8. concentration, To reach Nirvana 1. right views, 2. intention, 3. speech, 4. actions, 5. living, 6. effort, 7. mindfulness, 8. concentration., 1. Right Views 2. Right Thoughts 3. Right Speech 4. Right Action 5. Right Livelihood 6. Right Effort 7. Right Mindfulness 8. Right Medatation
Nirvana
\”blowing out\” – the ultimate goal of all Buddhists, the extinction of desire and any sense of individual selfhood, resulting in liberation from samsara and its limiting conditions., (Hinduism and Buddhism) the beatitude that transcends the cycle of reincarnation, 1: the final beatitude that transcends suffering, karma, and samsara and is sought especially in Buddhism through the extinction of desire and individual consciousness, (in Buddhism) a transcendent state in which there is neither suffering, desire, nor sense of self, and the subject is released from the effects of karma and the cycle of death and rebirth. It represents the final goal of Buddhism.
Bodhisattvas
Buddhist holy men who refused advance toward nirvana to receive prayers of the living to help them reach holiness., Buddhas-to-be who stayed in the world after enlightenment to help others on the path to salvation., \”Buddhas in the making,\” like angels providing assistance to those who worship them; they could become a Buddha, but instead, they do not enter nirvana so as to help others achieve nirvana; their compassion is key, Buddhist doctrine that held that some people could gain nirvana through meditation. This shows that Buddhism shifted from a system of ethics into a more emotional belief., Buddhist doctrine that held that some people could gain nirvana through meditation. This shows that Buddhism shifted from a system of ethics into a more emotional belief.
Hinduism
A cohesive and unique society, most prevalent in India, that integrates spiritual beliefs with daily practices and official institutions such as the caste system., A religion and philosophy developed in ancient India, characterized by a belief in reincarnation and a supreme being who takes many forms, A polytheistic religion that was formed from a variety of different religious practices. In Hinduism, salvation is achieved through a spiritual oneness of the soul, atman, with the ultimate reality of the universe, Brahma. To achieve this goal, the soul must obtain moksha, or liberation from the samsara, the endless cycle of birth, death, and rebirth. As a result of these basic teachings, Hindus believe in reincarnation, which is influenced by karma (material actions resulting from the consequences of previous actions), and dharma (fulfilling one’s duty in life). Because all forms of animal life possess souls, Hindus believe in ahimsa, or that all life is sacred. and should not be harmed. In fact, one animal which Hindus consider to be extremely sacred is the cow. The peaceful and contented existence of cows is considered virtuous by Hindus and would represent a rewarding reincarnation for a soul. For this reason, most Hindus are vegetarians so that they do not harm other living beings. The belief in reincarnation, karma, and dharma also provides the religious justification for the existence of the rigid social structure known as the Caste System.
Bhagavad Gita
(Hinduism) the sacred ‘song of God’ composed about 200 BC and incorporated into the Mahabharata (a Sanskrit epic), (the lord’s song) a part of the epic known as Mahabharata where Brahman comes down and speaks to Arjuna about the importance of responsibility, The most important work of Indian sacred literature, a dialogue between the great warrior Arjuna and the god Krishna on duty and the fate of the spirit., \”song celestial\” a scriptural text from the Mahabharata concerning Krishna, an avatar of the God Vishnu, teaches ways to salvation. Most influential of all Hindu scripture., (the lord’s song) a part of the epic known as Mahabharata where Brahman comes down and speaks to Arjuna about the importance of responsibility
Mauryan Empire
(321-185 BCE) This was the first centralized empire of India whose founder was Chandragupta Maurya., (321-185BC) Hindu empire established in India, Emperor Asoka covered to Buddhism and improved roads, built hospitals, and education., The first state to unify most of the Indian subcontinent. It was founded by Chandragupta Maurya in 324 B.C.E. and survived until 184 B.C.E. From its capital at Pataliputra in the Ganges Valley it grew wealthy from taxes., (326-184 BCE) – all but southern tip of Indian subcontinent; like Chinese and Romans, but short lived; large military, bureaucracy, state run industries,etc. Most famous ruler = Ashoka
Chandragupta Maurya
…, He founded India’s first empire. He was an Indian prince who conquered a large area in the Ganges River valley soon after Alexander invaded western India., (322 – 298 BCE) Ruler of a small Ganges Valley state who defeated the Greeks in the area and made himself king in 322 BCE. He then created and enlarged the Mauryan Empire., An Indian military leader that began the Mauryan Empire. He united North India by seizing all the land from the Magadha to the Indus. in 305 B.C. he began to battle Seleucus I who had enherited Alexander the Greats empire. After fighting for several years he defeated Seleucus. He raised vast armies to help him win battles. He relied on his adviosr named Kautilya who wrote a rulers handbook. He held a hihly bureaucratic goernment. He divided the empire into four provinces, each headed by a royal prince. Each province was hen divided into local districs whose official collected taes and enforced the law. He ruled for 32 years.
Ashoka
(r.268-232 BCE) The Mauryan emperor who can be compared to Constantine and who promoted Buddhism throught his empire., (269-323 BCE); Chandragupta’s grandson; gained control of all but India’s southern tip; supporter of Buddhism; spread it throughout India but respected other religions; built extensive networks of roads, Third ruler of the Mauryan Empire in India (r. 270-232 B.C.E.). He converted to Buddhism and broadcast his precepts on inscribed stones and pillars, the earliest surviving Indian writing. (p. 184), 269 – 232 BCE. Most prominent Mauryan ruler. Extended territory gaining control of all but the southern tip of India. Was brutal until he converted to Buddhism and became peaceful. Improved trade routes/silk road. Constructed extensive roads.
Gupta Empire
(320-550 C.E.) A powerful Indian state based, like its Mauryan predecessor, on a capital at Pataliputra in the Ganges Valley. It controlled most of the Indian subcontinent through a combination of military force and its prestige as a center of sophisticated culture., Golden Age of India; ruled through central government but allowed village power; restored Hinduism, 280-550 CE Hinduism retook India from Buddhism, lesser gods/ caste system appear then, science/ math/ astronomy , idea of 0, invented chess, 1 CE-300 CE. Revival of Mauryan Empire, but much smaller. Started again in Ganges Valley and Mahadha in the east and spread under 3 key leaders: Chandra Gupta, Samadra Gupta, and Chandra Gupta II. Fell to white Huns, (320-550 C.E.) A powerful Indian state based, like its Mauryan predecessor, on a capital at Pataliputra in the Ganges Valley. It controlled most of the Indian subcontinent through a combination of military force and its prestige as a center of sophisticated culture (pg. 177)
Cultural Diffusion
The gradual spread of techniques w/out extensive movement of people, The spread of cultural elements from one society to another
The silk road
Is an extensive interconnected network of trade routes across the Asian continent connecting East, South, and Western Asia with the Mediterranean world, as well as North and Northeast Africa and Europe. It spread Buddhism from India to China., One of the first trade routes in the world,an ancient trade route between China and the Mediterranean Sea extending some 6,440 km (4,000 mi) and linking China with the Roman Empire. Marco Polo followed the route on his journey to Cathay., One of the first trade routes in the world,an ancient trade route between China and the Mediterranean Sea extending some 6,440 km (4,000 mi) and linking China with the Roman Empire.
Stirrup
device for securing a horseman’s feet, enabling him to wield weapons more effectively. First evidence of the use of stirrups was among the Kushan people of northern Afghanistan in approximately the first century C.E., Device for securing a horseman’s feet, enabling him to wield weapons more effectively. First evidence of the use of stirrups was among the Kushan people of northern Afghanistan in approximately the first century C.E., Device for securing a horseman’s feet, enabling him to wield weapons more effectively. First evidence of the use of stirrups was among the Kushan people of northern Afghanistan in approximately the first century CE
Indian Ocean maritime system
In premodern times, a network of seaports, trade routes, and maritime culture linking countries on the rim of the Indian Ocean from Africa to Indonesia., In premodern times, a network of seaports, trade routes, and maritime culture linking countries on the rim of the Indian Ocean from Africa to Indonesia. (p. 207), In premodern times, a network of seaports, trade routes, and maritime culture linking countries on the rim of the Indian Ocean from Africa to Indonesia, In premodern times, a network of seaports, trade routes, and maritime culture linking countries on the rim of the Indian Ocean from Africa to Indonesia. (p. 213)
Cosmopolitan city
common to cities all over the world; sophisticated and worldly; widely distributed, Cities that were diverse in their dealings, cultures, and populations. Much trading happened in cities.
Bantu group
A major African language family. Collective name of a large group of sub-Saharan African languages and of the peoples speaking these languages. Famous for migrations throughout central and southern Africa., linguistic group, people givent the same thing becasue of a same language, evidence of migration, spread of agriculture, iron working, denser popluations, linguistic group, people givent the same thing becasue of a same language, evidence of migration, spread of agriculture, iron working, denser popluations, Had the base of languages in Africa, iron working, no cultural diffusion due to the fact that they are sub Saharan

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member