AP World History Unit 2 Review: Overview

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qin shihuangdi
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Ruler of China who united China for the first time. He built road and canals and began the Great Wall of China. He also imposed a standard system of laws, money, weights, and writing. *significant because he contributed to Chinese language and coinage/currency.
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qin dynasty
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the Chinese dynasty (from 246 BC to 206 BC) that established the first centralized imperial government and built much of the Great Wall *significant because the Great Wall was built in this dynasty, first centralized empire.
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republic
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a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them *significant because it shows how republics today are similar or dissimilar.
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Han Dynasty
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(202 BCE-220 CE) This dynasty continued the centralization of the Qin Dynasty, but focused on Confucianism and education instead of Legalism. *significant because Confucianism is used a lot during this time period.
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confucius
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Chinese philosopher (circa 551-478 BC) *significant because he founded Confucianism and is still widely practiced today.
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plebeians
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the poorer majority of the roman empire; the working class; couldnt be part of government; could vote but not hold office; couldnt be in army *significant because it shows us patterns in roman empire with social/gender classes/divisions
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civil service exams
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Confucian exam to acquire a position in the Chinese bureaucracy *significant because it shows us how important it was to know material and have good values was to Confucius.
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empire
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the domain ruled by an emperor or empress *significant because it shows patterns with empires and emperors/empress’
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patricians
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the wealthy class in Roman society; landowners *significant because it shows patterns of the social classes in Classic Rome
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Silk Road
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an ancient trade route between China and the Mediterranean (4,000 miles) *significant because it spread many goods such as spices, silk, and gunpowder, and religions such as buddhism and christianity throughout asia and much of europe.
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Julius Caesar
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Dictator of Rome Circa 100-44 BCE *significant because under his rule did the Roman Republic become an empire.
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Pax Romana
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\”the Roman peace\”, A period of peace and prosperity throughout the Roman Empire, lasting from 27 B.C. to A.D. 180. *significant because it shows periods of prosperity in the roman empire
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Scholar Gentry
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the educated upper classes in China *significant because it shows social class divisions in the golden age of china.
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Twelve Tables
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the earliest written collection of Roman laws, drawn up by patricians about 450B.C., that became the foundation of Roman law *significant because it is the foundation of roman laws which in turn lay the foundation for many laws still active present day.
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slaves
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people who were regarded as the property of their masters *significant because slaves have been used throughout world history and are still used today in Africa by African tribes.
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satrap
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a governor of a province in the Persian empire *significant because it shows the organization of persian government
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Diocletian
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Roman emperor who divided the empire in two and oversaw the eastern part *significant because he was responsible for the influence of both parts of what was the roman empire.
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Polis
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Greek city-state *significant because it shows the organization of City States in Greece- Athens and Sparta
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Constantine
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Emperor of Rome who adopted the Christian faith and stopped the persecution of Christians (280-337) *significant because he popularized christianity and was a famous emperor of rome.
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Sparta
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Greek city-state that was ruled by an oligarchy, focused on military, used slaves for agriculture, discouraged the arts *significant because Sparta was involved in the Peloponnesian war
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Germanic Tribes
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the groups of invaders who took over the Western Roman Empire *significant because they helped continue the decline of the roman empire
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Athens
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the capital and largest city of Greece *significant because it set the tone for republics around the world throughout history.
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Pericles
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Athenian statesman whose leadership contributed to Athen’s political and cultural supremacy in Greece *significant because he contributed to politics and culture in greece.
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Herodotus
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the ancient Greek known as the father of history *significant because he was the father of history
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Jesus
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Religious leader and founder of Christianity *significant because he founded the one of the worlds major religions.
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Christians
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people who believe Jesus was the Messiah *significant because they contributed to culture in many societies
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Monarchy
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state ruled over by a single person, as a king or queen *significant because many religions today are monarchies
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tyrant
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a cruel and oppressive dictator *significant because many emperors in many empires have been tyrants and have changed the organization of said empires.
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hoplite
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Heavily armed Greek infantry who carried long spears and fought in closely spaced rows *significant because this is the warfare use for many centuries to come.
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persian wars
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Conflicts between Greek city-states and the Persian Empire *significant because these wars help us understand the different cultures battling
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oligarchy
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a system of government in which a small group holds power *significant because sparta was an olligarchy
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constantinople
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Previously known as Byzantium, Constantine changed the name of the city and moved the capitol of the Roman Empire here from Rome. *significant because this is a place where one can visit to see the incomplete fall of the roman empire.
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democracy
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a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them *significant because democracys are widely used today
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justinians code
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A law code created by the Byzantine Emperor Justinian about 530 CE. It was a revision of the old Roman law system. *significant because it was a revision of popular roman laws
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homer
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ancient Greek epic poet who is believed to have written the Iliad and the Odyssey (circa 850 BC) *significant because he told us much about greek culture and religion
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socrates
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Greek philosopher; sentenced to death for corrupting Athens youth *significant because he is responsible for the socratic method of questioning
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Philosophy
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a belief (or system of beliefs) accepted as authoritative by some group or school *significant because we study philosophy in school/ college
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Plato
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ancient Athenian philosopher; was Socrates’ student *significant because he had ideas of ideal governments and how knowledge based on consideration of ideal forms outside the material world
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Aristotle
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Greek philosopher; teacher of Alexander the Great; *significant becausehe believed that knowledge was based on observation of phenomena in material world
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Gupta Empire
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Golden Age of India; ruled through central government but allowed village power; *significant because it restored Hinduism
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Varna
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four classes into which the Aryans divided people *significant because it was the caste system
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Vedas
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Ancient Sanskrit writings that are the earliest sacred texts of Hinduism. *significant because they were the earliest texts that pertained to Hinduism written in Sanskrit.

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