AP World History Time Period 2

Flashcard maker : Richard Molina
Imperial
Ruled by an emperor
Bureaucracies
Government system in which decisions are made by state officials
Diplomacy
Managing relationships with other cultures through discussion and representatives
Corvee labor
Unpaid labor mostly in construction as a debt to ruler
Filial loyalty
Family loyalty or respect
Maritime
Seafaring
Importance of camel
Allowed for Caravan transport of goods and people
Monsoon wind
Seasonal wind blowing Northeast in the summer and Southwest in the winter which allowed for Indian Ocean trade from South Asia to the African Coast
Disease pathogens
Spread across the Silk Road from China to Europe as a result of trans-regional interaction
Qanat system
Persian underground water supply system
Noria water wheel
Wheeled Roman irrigation device
How did disease impact the Roman Empire?
The Black Death or Bubonic plague killed over one-third of its total population
Hinduism
Religion founded in 3500 BCE which preached reincarnation, moksha, and supported the caste system. It’s scriptures were The Vedas and upanishads and its treatment of women was patriarchal because woman cannot achieve Moksha
Judaism
Religion founded by Abraham in 1500 BCE. It preaches a covenant with God and Ten Commandments and was the first monotheistic religion. It’s religious scripture is the Torah or Old Testament. Women have no official power but are very influential and important to the household
Confucianism
A philosophy founded by Confucius around 500 BCE which Praises Merit education and government as well as filial piety and ancestor worship. It’s texts were the analects and it was very oppressive because it valued men above women
Taoism
A religion founded by Lao Tzu around 500 BCE which supported harmony with nature and Chi, a supernatural life force.
Buddhism
Religion founded by Siddhartha Gautama later to be known as the Buddha around 500 BCE. It practiced a monastic lifestyle and preached the four noble truths and Eightfold Path to enlightenment by reducing suffering and eliminating material desire
Christianity
A religion founded by Jesus of Nazareth Circa 30 CE. It had a monastic lifestyle and was a monotheistic religion based around Jesus’ divinity as Messiah. It’s texts are the New and Old Testament collected into the Bible
What does the acronym tree stand for?
T – trade. R – religion. E – expansion. E – Empire.
Time frame
600 BCE to 600 CE
Chinese dynasties
Q’in (Great wall, Terra cotta warriors) & Han (Silk Road)
Indian Empires
Maurya (Buddhism/Ashoka), Gupta (Reunites India/Chandra Gupta)
Africa at the time
Bantu (Swahili language/migration)
Middle Eastern Empires
Assyria (war faring/ chariots), Persia (Darius the Great/Persian War with Greece)
Europe
Greek City States (Athens vs. Sparta), Hellanism (Alexander the great expands), Roman Empire/Republic (pinnacle of architecture, art, western culture)
The Americas
Maya, Aztec, Inca
Period 2 theme
Organization and reorganization of human societies (gov’t after Hun invasions)
Key concept 2.1
The development and codification of religious and cultural traditions
2.1 explanation
Empires increased in size and inter-regional contacts diffused religious and cultural systems. Religion and belief systems provided a special bond and ethical code to live by. Shared beliefs enforced political economic and occupational stratification.
2.1 I
Codification and further developments of existing religious Traditions provided a bond among people and an ethical code to live by. Examples are Jewish monotheism and the Hebrew scriptures , Sanskrit scriptures and Hinduism which reinforced teachings of Brahma and reincarnation as well as a caste system
2.1 II
New belief systems and cultural Traditions emerged and spread often asserting Universal truths:
Buddhism talk to end suffering and reach Enlightenment by eliminating desire (spread by Mauryan emperor Ashoka and missionaries/marchants). Confucianism score beliefs and writings originated in lessons by Confucius who promoted social harmony and respecting social relationships. Taoist writings promoted to core belief of balance between humans and nature (Lao Zi) which affected the development of Chinese culture (Chi, medical practices, poetry, water color, architecture, metallurgy). Christianity was based on the core beliefs of the teachings and Divinity of Jesus of Nazareth and despite initial Roman Imperial hostility it spread through missionary and merchant’s efforts until it eventually gained Roman Imperial support by the time of emperor Constantine. Greco-Roman philosophy emphasized logic empirical observation and the nature of political power and hierarchy (Socrates, Plato, Aristotle). Art and architecture reflected such values and beliefs systems (Hindu, Buddhist, Christian, Greco-Roman art/architecture)
2.1 III
Belief systems generally rainforest existing social structures while also offering new roles and status to some men and women. For example Confucianism emphasized filial piety and some Buddhists and Christians practiced a monastic life.
2.1 IV
Other religious and cultural Traditions including Shamanism animism and ancestor veneration continued (polytheism)
Key concept 2.2
The development of states and Empires (military, administrative institutions, hierarchies)
2.2 I
The number and size of key States and Empires grew dramatically as rulers imposed political Unity on areas were previously there had been competing states (Persia, Qin/Han, Maurya/Gupta, Greek C.S./Roman and Hellanistic Empires, Maya C.S)
2.2 II
Empires and States developed new techniques of Imperial Administration based in part on the success of the earlier critical forms (centralized government, legal systems and bureaucracy in China, Persia, Rome, and India)
2.2 II trade and military power techniques
Assuring currencies, diplomacy, developing supply lines, building fortifications, defensive walls, New Roads, and drawing new groups of Military Officers and soldiers from the location populations or conquered populations
2.2 III
Unique social and economic Dimensions developed Imperial Societies in afro-eurasia in the Americas (trade/culture capitals: Persepolis, Athens, Constantinople, Chang’an)
Methods of ensuring production and social hierarchy
Corvee labor, slavery, rents and tributes, hasn’t communities, family and household production
2.2 IV
The Roman Han Persian Moran and Gupta Empires encounter political culture and administrative difficulties that they could not manage which eventually led to their decline collapse and transformation into successor Empires or States (social tensions because $ was all in the hands of elites; invasions {Han/Xiongnu, Gupta/White Huns, Romans/ barbarians to North and East})
2.3
Emergence of inter-regional networks of communication and exchange (trade, disease, communication, exchange of goods/ideas
2.3 I
Land and water routes became the basis for inter-regional trade communication and exchange networks in the eastern hemisphere. TRADE ROUTES: Eurasian Silk Roads, trans-saharan Caravan routes, Indian Ocean Sea Lanes, Mediterranean Sea Lanes
2.3 II
New technologies facilitated long-distance communication and exchange (domesticated pack animals: horses/camel caravans, maritime tech: monsoon wind knowledge allowed trade b/w East Africa to East Asia)
2.3 III
Alongside the trade and goods, exchange of people, technology, religious and cultural beliefs, food crops, domesticated animals, and disease pathogens developed across extensive network of communication and exchange (irrigation techniques like qanat system, rice & cotton crops spread from South Asia to ME, Bubonic Plague in Europe and China, Hinduism/Christianity/Buddhism spread and transform)

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