AP World History: Study Guide

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PART ONE
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PART ONE
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Popular sovereignty
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People decided to work together, form civil society, and appoint rulers to protect and promote common interests. Individuals granted political rights to their rulers but retained personal rights to life, liberty, and property.
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Natural rights
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Rights that people supposedly have under natural law. The Declaration of Independence of the United States lists life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness as natural rights.
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Effects of French Revolution on European monarchies and the church
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The Enlightenment ideals promoted by the American and French revolutions-freedom, equality, and popular sovereignty- appealed to people’s throughout Europe and the Americas.
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Role of technology in colonial acquisitions
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Transportation, advanced weaponry, and communication helped imperialize and control colonies that the Europeans have taken over.
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Efforts of lower class in both French and Haitian revolutions
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Lower class citizens in both French and Haitian revolutions revolted against the monarch powers to recreate and reform their society.
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Simon Bolivar
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Led the movement for independence in Bolivia and other parts of South America.
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\”A Vindication of the Rights of Woman\”
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An essay that stated that woman posses all the rights that Locke had granted to men. It insisted on the right to woman education to create better mothers, wives, and workers.
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Restrictions British placed on American colonists
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Strict laws and taxes placed on American colonies after the French and Indian war. -Tea Act -Sugar Act -Stamp Act. -etc.
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The Enlightenment and secular reasoning
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is the state of being separate from religion, or of not being exclusively allied with or against any particular religion.
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Why did the slave trade slowly end through the world during this periodization
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The American and French revolutions stimulated these discussions, since both emphasized liberty, equality, and justice, topics that fed a strong abolitionist movement. Despite the importance of the abolitionist movement, economic forces also contributed to the end of slavery and the slave trade.
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Importance of railroads in 19th century expansion, urban growth, Industrial Revolution
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Railroads gave manufacturers a cheap way to transport materials and finished products. Railroads transported people, allowing them to work in cities far away from their homes and travel to resort areas for leisure.
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How did British and Spanish interactions with Amerindians and Africans in colonies differ?
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The Spanish tried to convert the Amerindians to Catholicism while the British focused more on imperializing and colonizing the Africans for their own benefits and profits.
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What was the first Industrial Revolution in Great Britain initially based on?
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The transition of going from hand production methods to machines, new chemical manufacturing and iron production processes, improved efficiency of water power, the increasing use of steam power, the development of machine tools and the rise of the factory system. Textiles were the dominant industry of the Industrial Revolution in terms of employment, value of output and capital invested; the textile industry was also the first to use modern production methods.
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Scientific Racism
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Scientific racism is the use of ostensibly scientific or pseudo-scientific techniques and hypotheses to support or justify the belief in racism, racial inferiority, racialism, racial superiority, or alternatively the practice of classifying individuals of different phenotypes into discrete races.
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Social Darwinism
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Social Darwinism is a name given to various theories of society which emerged in the United Kingdom, North America, and Western Europe in the 1870s, and which claim to apply biological concepts of natural selection and survival of the fittest to sociology and politics.
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Richard Kipling, \”The White Man’s Burden,\”
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A poem that represented the white man’s ideology of being the dominant race. It also represented the idea that it was the job of the white man to fix the world’s problems including famine, peace, and civilizing the other races.
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Karl Marx
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Karl Marx was a philosopher, economist, sociologist, journalist and revolutionary socialist. Born in Prussia (now Rhineland-Palatinate), he later became stateless and spent much of his life in London. Marx’s work in economics laid the basis for much of the current understanding of labour and its relation to capital, and subsequent economic thought. He published numerous books during his lifetime, the most notable being The Communist Manifesto (1848) and Das Kapital (1867-1894).
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Adam Smith
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Adam Smith was a Scottish moral philosopher, pioneer of political economy, and a key figure in the Scottish Enlightenment. Smith is best known for two classic works: The Theory of Moral Sentiments (1759), and An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776). The latter, usually abbreviated as The Wealth of Nations, is considered his magnum opus and the first modern work of economics. Smith is cited as the father of modern economics and is still among the most influential thinkers in the field of economics today.
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How did British change Indian economy-Textiles
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The economy of the country of India, which was once thriving, was devastated by the Industrial Revolution. Before the Industrial Revolution, India was the world leader in textile manufacturing and exporting. Throughout the Industrial Revolution, Great Britain exploited India until India’s economy all but collapsed.
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What did Marx/Engels believe would be the final outcome of communism?
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The Marxist theory of historical materialism sees human society as fundamentally determined at any given time by the material conditions—in other words, the relationships which people have with each other are in order to fulfill basic needs such as feeding, clothing, and housing themselves and their families.
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PART TWO
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PART TWO
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What factors contributed most to growing nationalism from 1750-1900?
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• Imperialism • Industrial Revolution • French and American Revolutions • Enlightenment ideas
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Know characteristics of capitalism, socialism, and communism
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Communism: a way of organizing a society in which the government owns the things that are used to make and transport products (such as land, oil, factories, ships, etc.) and there is no privately owned property Capitalism: a way of organizing an economy so that the things that are used to make and transport products (such as land, oil, factories, ships, etc.) are owned by individual people and companies rather than by the government Socialism: a way of organizing a society in which major industries are owned and controlled by the government rather than by individual people and companies
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Communist Manifesto
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The Communist Manifesto is an 1848 political pamphlet by German philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Commissioned by the Communist League just as the revolutions of 1848 began to erupt, the Manifesto was later recognized as one of the world’s most influential political manuscripts. It presents an analytical approach to the class struggle (historical and then-present) and the problems of capitalism and the capitalist mode of production, rather than a prediction of communism’s potential future forms.
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Cecil Rhodes
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Cecil John Rhodes was a British businessman, mining magnate and politician in South Africa, who served as Prime Minister of the Cape Colony from 1890 to 1896. An ardent believer in British imperialism, Rhodes and his British South Africa Company founded the southern African territory of Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe and Zambia), which the company named after him in 1895.
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Declaration of Independence
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The Declaration of Independence is the statement adopted by the Second Continental Congress meeting at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on July 4, 1776, which announced that the thirteen American colonies, then at war with the Kingdom of Great Britain, regarded themselves as thirteen newly independent sovereign states, and no longer under British rule. Instead they formed a new nation—the United States of America.
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Capitulations
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Often, capitulations. a treaty or agreement by which subjects of one country residing or traveling in another are extended extraterritorial rights or special privileges, especially such a treaty between a European country and the former Ottoman rulers of Turkey.
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Chinese ‘spheres of influence’
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Eventually western nations weary of governing foreign lands, established spheres of influence within China which guaranteed specific trading privileges to each nation within its respective sphere.
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Boxer Rebellion
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The Boxer Rebellion, Boxer Uprising or Yihequan Movement was a violent anti-foreign and anti-Christian uprising which took place in China towards the end of the Qing dynasty between 1899 and 1901. It was initiated by the Militia United in Righteousness (Yihetuan), known in English as the \”Boxers\”, and was motivated by proto-nationalist sentiments and opposition to imperialist expansion and associated Christian missionary activity. The Great Powers intervened and defeated the Chinese forces.
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Meiji Restoration
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The Meiji Restoration, also known as the Meiji Ishin, Renovation, Revolution, Reform, or Renewal, was a chain of events that restored practical imperial rule to Japan in 1868 under Emperor Meiji. Although there were Emperors before Meiji Restoration, the events restored practical abilities and consolidated the political system under the Emperor of Japan. The goals of the restored government were expressed by the new emperor in the Charter Oath. The Restoration led to enormous changes in Japan’s political and social structure, and spanned both the late Edo period (often called Late Tokugawa shogunate) and the beginning of the Meiji period. The period spanned from 1868 to 1912 and was responsible for the emergence of Japan as a modernized nation in the early twentieth century.
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Russo-Japanese war
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The Russo-Japanese War (8 February 1904 – 5 September 1905) was fought between the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over rival imperial ambitions in Manchuria and Korea. The major threats of operations were the Liaodong Peninsula and Mukden in Southern Manchuria, and the seas around Korea, Japan, and the Yellow Sea. The defeats of the Russian Army and Navy shook up Russian confidence. Throughout 1905, the Imperial Russian government was rocked by revolution. The population was against escalation of the war. The empire was certainly capable of sending more troops, but the poor state of the economy, the embarrassing defeats of the Russian Army and Navy by the Japanese, and the relative unimportance of the disputed land to Russia made the war extremely unpopular.
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Gran Columbia
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Gran Colombia, formal name Republic of Colombia , Simón Bolívar’s short-lived republic (1819-30), formerly the Viceroyalty of New Granada, including roughly the modern nations of Colombia, Panama, Venezuela, and Ecuador. In the context of their war for independence from Spain, revolutionary forces in northern South America, led by Simón Bolívar, in 1819 laid the basis for a regular government at a congress in Angostura. Gran Colombia had a brief, vigorous existence during the war. Subsequent civilian and military rivalry for public office and regional jealousies led to a rebellion in Venezuela in 1826. After ruling as dictator from 1828 to 1830, Bolívar convoked a convention to frame a new constitution.
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Congress of Vienna-effects
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The Congress of Vienna had the goal to re-establish the old bounaries an political morpholigy of Europe after the napoleonic era The Congress of Vienna 1814-15 re-established the old order of Nations after the fall of Napoleon. The consequeces of the treaty were what we now call the Pax Britannia, one hundred years of relative peace during which Great Britain held the balance of power. But those one hundred years also included the 1848 revolutions that failed in the end and of course the 1871 war that Bismarck engineered between Prussia and France that resulted in the establishment of the German Empire. A. It restored the pre-French revolutionary balance of power (principle of Legitimacy) and it kept France weak.
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Xhosa Cattle Killings and the American Native Ghosts Dances
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In April or May 1856, the teenaged Nongqawuse and her friend Nombanda went to fetch water from a pool near the mouth of the Gxarha River. When she returned, Nongqawuse told her uncle and guardian Mhlakaza, a Xhosa spiritualist, that she had met the spirits of three of her ancestors. She claimed that the spirits had told her that the Xhosa people should destroy their crops and kill their cattle, the source of their wealth as well as food. In return the spirits would sweep the British settlers into the sea.[1] The Xhosa would be able to replenish the granaries, and fill the kraals with more beautiful and healthier cattle. During this time many Xhosa herds were plagued with \”lung sickness\”, possibly introduced by European cattle. By 1856, many cattle had died, and the Xhosa believed that the deaths were caused by umuthi – witchcraft.
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Difference between Japan and China were able to limit European influence in 19th century
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Japan opened up markets after Western countries (US mostly) demanded to open up the markets for trade. After realizing how far behind they were, Japan opened up to the western world and quickly reformed to catch up with the western world by using western policies and education. This however became a problem because Japan didn’t have any raw materials, so they were over looked by EU and US forces. The people in charge of the Meiji restoration took away almost all rights to keep control of their citizens and still reform the country. China refused to open up boarders and trading to western world. British forces illegally traded opium to Chinese people. After 20,000 barrels were confiscated, Britain won the 1st opium war. France and Britain again traded opium after the first war was over. The western forces won and made an unfair treaty with China. The treaty pretty much said that they had to open up its borders and trade.

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