AP World History Semester 1 exam

Flashcard maker : Stephen Sanchez
australopithecus
4-1mya, east Africa, walked upright on two legs and had well-developed hands, used stone tools and later developed fire
homo erectus
2.5 mya-200tya, east Africa but migrated to Asia and Europe and became set. throughout by 200 tya, had a large brain that enabled them to develop language skills in well-coordinated hunts of large animals and made use of sophisticated tools and by this point definitely knew how to control fire
homo sapiens
200 tya, had a brain with frontal functions enabling conscious and reflective thought, spread thru eurasia over 100 tya because of Ice age land bridges, tools consisted of knives, spears, bows, and arrows, their presence brought pressure on other species and they became dominant
Paleolithic economy/society
1. Huntering/gathering lifestyle prevented individuals from accumulating private property, making people more or less equal and they lived in small bands of 30-50
2. big game hunting with special tools and tactics made possible by arrangement in small bands
3. settlements began to appear (Natufians in the eastern Mediterranean, Jomon in central Japan and Chinook in the pacific northwest)
Neandarthals
100-35 tya, populated Europe and southwest Asia, their careful and deliberate burials evidence their capacity for emotion and feelings
Creativity and Power of homo sapiens
created languages, ability to gain and transmit knowledge to new generations, developed new tools, weapons, and established trade networks. They also worshipped venus figurines symbolizing fertility and their cave painting of animals showed a form of sympathetic magic
origins of agriculture
came out of neolithic era (new stone age) and the refined tools and agriculture it brought, 12-6 tya, women systematically cultivated plants and men domesticated animals
Agriculture boom of 9000 bce
emerged independently in different parts of the world, and merchants/migrants/travelers spread knowledge, but the slam and burn method involved frequent movement and was more work but did provide a large, steady supply of food
Results of food surplus and following population boom
1. emergence of villages and towns like Jericho as the first with its mud huts and defensive walls
2. specialization of labor shown at the Neolithic site of Catal Huyuk with its 8000 people and prehistoric craft industries like pottery, metallurgy, and textile production
3. social distinctions due to private property
neolithic culture
use of calendars and worship of life-cycle deities, maybe explained by reliance on farming, emergence of cities that were larger and more complex than villages with the earliest cities in the Tigris and Euphrates valley beta 4000 and 3500 bce
mesopotamia
\”the land between the rivers\”, meaning in the valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The area had little rain, so irrigation was needed and small-scale irrigation was in progress by 6000 bce
effects of food supply increase
increase in human population, migrants like the Semites to the area increase, Sumer to the north becomes a population center
emergence of the first cities from 4000bce
betw 3200-2350 bce sumer evolves into city-states with control of the surrounding regions, governments sponsor building projects and irrigation, wall building and military development was caused by attacks by others and kingships evolved with cooperation of noble families
Sargon of Akkad 2370-2315 bce
led coup against the ing of Kish, seized trade routes and natural resources, but gradually the empire weakened and collapsed about 2000 bce
Hammurabi 1792-1750 bce
centralized the bureaucracy and regulated taxes, capital of Babylon, Law Code based on retribution and importance of social status, but attack from the Hittites crumbled the empire in 1595 bce
Assyrians 1300-612 bce
cities of Assur and Ninevah, had a powerful empire with pro officers selected by merit and made use of chariots, archers, and iron weapons, but unpopular rule led to rebellions and the empire ended in 612 bce
new babylonian empire 600-550 bce
Nebuchadnezzar 605-562 bce who built the Hanging Gardens of the palace to show earth nd luxury
Economic Specialization and Trade
bronze from copper and tin was used in weapons and later agriculture tools, but iron better because was cheaper and more widely available, so was used in weapons and tools. The development of the wheel in 3500 bce helped trade since it enabled carts to carry more goods farther. shipbuilding also emerged which increased maritime trade and developed a network
Social classes
In cities more opportunities to accumulate wealth were present. At the top os the scale were the hereditary kings and his noble supporters, then were the priests and priestesses who ruled temple communities with large incomes and staff and below were the free commoners aka peasants which included dependent clients with no property and they payed taxes and worked on building projects. At the bottom were the slaves being mostly debtors and prisoners of war which acted as mainly domestic servants
emergence of patriarchy
developed with the help of Hammurabi’s code, which dictated that men were the head of the household and women got fewer rights after 2000 bce and by by 1500 bce they wore veils
development of written traditions
1. cuneiform became standard which involved a reed stylus pressed into clay then baked and use mostly for commercial and tax documents
2. education also came to be as it was vocational to become a scribe or government official
3. literature focused on astronomy, mathematics, and abstract ideas like religion as shown by the Epic of Gilgamesh
Hebrews, Isrealites, and Jews
1. Early Hebrews: pastoral nomads between Egypt and Meso in the 2nd millennium bce, settled in some cities, were led in a group by Abraham to Palestine in 1850 bce, and their descendants borrowed the law or retribution and the flood story from Meso
2. Some migrated to Egypt in 19th century bce and then back to Palestine with Moses. The twelve tribes became the Israelites who were governed by Meso-style monarchs with Jerusalem as their capital, most notably David (100-970 bce) the Solomon (970-930 bce)
Moses and monotheism
10 commandments: moral and ethical standard for followers, compilation of teachings into Torah (1000-400 bce)
Assyrians conquest
Israel in the north and Judah to the south, destroyed Jerusalem, deportees sent to Judea and became known as jews in 586 bce, but prophets in this period increased the devotion of people and the jews build a distinct community in Judea with a strong group identity
Phoenicians
settled around 300- bce and enveloped into kingdoms of city-states with little agriculture, living on trade and communication networks. Overland trade to Mesopotamia influenced their culture, but sea trade was the most important since it allowed them to get raw materials and trade for manufactured goods, also developed an alphabet in 1500 bce
Indo-European origins
liguists discovered similarities, so their languages must be related, originated in steppes of central asia as pastoral people 4500-2500 bce. These people domesticated horses, learned to ride them and use them with carts and then chariots
Indo-European expansion and its effects
3000 bce, society breaks up and people began to migrate (Hittites to Anatolia in 2000 bce), built powerful kingdoms, conquered Babylonian empire, but dissolved by about 1200 bce and used technology like horse-drawn chariots (spokes) and iron metallurgy and some migrated to central asia by about 2000 bce
other migrations to Greece, Britain, Italy, and central/western Europe
all pastoral farmers who spoke related languages and worshipped similar deities and Sryans later migrated to Iran and India
Climate change and agriculture in Africa
Sahara used to be a grassy steppe with water around 10,000 bce with abundant hunting, fishing, and wild grains. Eastern Sudan began to herd cattle and collect grains in 9000 bce and permanent settlements and the cultivation of sorghum and yams began in 7500 bce while in 5000 bce small states with semi-divine rulers had emerged
shift to hotter and drier climate effects
after 5000 bce people were driven to river regions like the Nile where the annual flooding made rich soil for agriculture
Egypt and Nubia \”gifts of the Nile\”
Egypt occupied the lower third of the river while Nubia occupied the middle third. Ater 5000 bce gourds, watermelons, domesticated donkeys and cattle from Sudan and wheat/ barley from Mesopotamia were in use. Agriculture was easy in Egypt due to the flooding but required more work in Nubia. As a result, states began to emerge and small kingdoms were in place by 3300 bce
Unification of Egypt
While Nubia was a throng realm, Ta Seti from 3400-3200 bce, Egypt had become a large and prosperous state by 3100 bce because Menes at Memphis united Upper and Lower Egypt. The pharaoh governed as an absolute ruler with ownership over all the land
Archaic Period (3100-2660 bce) and Old Kingdom (2660-2160 bce)
Great pyramids of Giza built (Khufu the largest) and violence between Egypt and Nubia with Egypt dominant 300-2400 bce a prominent feature. Nubia later developed into the kingdom of Kush and interaction was done in the form of diplomacy, Nubian mercenaries, and intermarriage
Turmoil after Old Kingdom
Old kingdom was followed by a period of Upheaval (2160-2040 bce) and the Middle Kingdom took shape (2040-1640 bce) but after the Hyksos, a nomadic horsemen invaded using bronze weapons and chariots which Egypt did not have, captured Memphis in 1674 bce which caused revolts in upper egypt
New Kingdom 1550-1070 bce
Pharaoh gained power with a huge army and large bureaucracy and had building projects of temples, palaces, and statues. Tuthmosis III (1479-1425 bce) built empire including Palestine, Syrian, and Nubia, but Egypt soon fell into a long period of decline
Egyptians driven out 1100 bce
Nubian Kingdom of Kush with its capital Napata emerged victorious as King Kashta conquered Thebes in 760 bce as the Assyrians with iron weapons invaded from the north. After the 6th century bce, Egypt was subject to a series of foreign conquests
Egyptian cities
not as prominent in Egypt as in Mesopotamia but the following were the most important
Memphis: head of the delta
Thebes: administrative center of Upper Egypt
Heliopolis: center of sun god cult
Tanis: important sea port on Mediterranean
Nubian cities
Kerma: dominated trade routes
Napata: most prosperous city after conquest of Egypt
Meroe: most influential after Assyrian invasion since it was farther south
Egyptian vs Nubia social classes
In Egypt the bottom to top: peasants and slaves, pharaoh, pro military and administrators
Nubia: complex hierarchical society (can tell from tombs)
Patriarchy was present in both societies but women had more influence than in Mesopotamia. In Egypt, women could act as regents like Hatshepsut and in Nubia women served as queens, priestesses, and scribes
Economy and Trade
Bronze played an important role but copper and tin were expensive and rare. Ion metallurgy developed independently in sudan and as far as transportation went, sailboats, carts, and donkey caravans were used.
Trade Networks
Between Egypt and Nubia: exotic goods from Nubia like ebony, gold, gems, and slaves while wine, linen, pottery, and decorative items were coming from Egypt. Between Egypt and the north, wood like cedar from Lebanon was traded and Punt was traded for thru African trade
Early Writing in the Nile
heiroglyphics on monuments and papyrus from 3200 bce and hieratic script was the everyday writing from 2600-600 bce. Demotic and Coptic scripts (Greek) were adapted. Nubia used Egyptian writing until Meriotic in the 5th century bce which has still not been deciphered
Egyptian religion
prinicpal gods were sun gods Amon and Re, but Aten under a brief period of monotheism during reign of Akhenaten who wanted capital of Akhetaten and ordered the names of other gods to be chiseled out, but the religion died with him
mummification
In the old Kingtom, only pharaohs were mummified but later ruling classes and the wealthy could afford it and by the middle and new kingdom, it was open to commoners
cult of osiris
Brother Seth murdered Osiris and scattered his body and his wife Isis gathered him up and the gods restored him to life in the underworld which became associated with the Nile, crops, life/death, and immortality. Osiris judged the heart of the dead against the feather of truth. In general, Nubians combine Egyptian religion with their own.
Bantu expansion
bantu-language group from west central Africa whose peoples lived along river banks and used canoes, cultivated yams and palm oils, lived in clan-based villages and traded with neighboring people
Early migrations 3000-1000 bce
moved south and west into forest, south to Congo River and east to Great Lakes area and absorbed most of neighboring population and by 1000 bce occupied most of Africa south of equator
Features of Bantu
surplus caused them to move inland, became involved in trade, rate of migration increased after 1000 bce because of appearance of iron which allowed them to clear more land for agriculture and gave them a stronger position
Early farm societies of sub-Saharan africa
other societies besides Bantu migrated and farming was widespread by 1000 bce. Society was run mostly by chiefs with age sets and initiation rites. Religion differed by area in that some worshipped single, impersonal divine forces representing good and bad while many individuals prayed to ancestors and local lords for intervention. Either way, there was lots of mixing of cultures

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