AP World History- Period 5: Industrialization and Global Integration (1750-1900)

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How did Industrialization affect seemingly unrelated fields like social structures, culture, and the economy?
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Industrialization solidified the positions of the upper and lower class Immigrants came to America looking for opportunities to better their social status and financial standings Woman and children became important in bringing money for the family and as a source of labor
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What combination of factors were necessary to begin the Industrial Revolution?
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Sources of labor provided by migrants, women, and children Increase in popularity of urban life Improvements in technology Reliable sources of raw materials and natural resources
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What \”fueled\” (both literally and metaphorically) the Industrial Revolution?
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Competition Labor and raw materials New technology Growth of cities
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How did factories change the nature of labor itself?
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Shift from agricultural labor to industrial labor Jobs became less diversified More women and children were able to get jobs Working conditions decreased Based on a strict time schedule
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Where did factories start, and where/how did the factory system spread?
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Factories were developed in Great Britain, which were mostly factories that produced textiles and iron Eventually spread throughout Europe and the Americas- spread to regions that had raw materials available Increasing need for specific products- necessary to meet demand
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What was the \”2nd Industrial Revolution\”?
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Occurred during the late 19th century, this event was based on the scientific innovations that occurred during the time period An increase in demand for products caused the need for new methods of rapid production (mass production and the assembly line) Occurred mostly in the United States and Europe
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How did the Industrial Revolution influence world trade overall?
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Created new markets Demand was met by an increase in production Raw materials became prevalent New technology and methods of transportation were developed Led to an increase in global trade
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What raw materials were commonly exported to industrialized areas?
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Coal Iron Cotton Labor Wood
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As industrial production rose, what type(s) of production declined?
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Products that were made by artisans and craftworkers, such as pottery
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What \”new\” markets did industrialized states look/create for their exports?
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Easily exploitable natives who can be monopolized by their products
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What role did monetary and precious metals play in the Industrial Revolution?
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Iron became an essential product in the production of steel Silver, gold, and copper were exported quickly because of the introduction of faster transportation Gold and silver became important in developing economies, so they became important exports
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How did industrialists legitimize the economic changes of the Industrial Revolution?
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Social Darwinism- Bigger businesses deserved to survive since they were better equipped in money and and other investments. Also reflected their views of themselves opposed to the lower class Self Strengthening Movement- Their work would develop the nation as a whole
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What financial institutions facilitated industrial production?
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Bankers loaned money to entrepreneurs Governments funded industrial developments
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How did the Industrial Revolution affect the scale of businesses and overall economic activity?
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Trusts and big businesses became more prevalent Monopolies overtook the market which made it more difficult for smaller businesses to survive Business grew to a national scale Money was concentrated with the wealthy
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What were the important developments in transportation during the industrial revolution?
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Steam power/coal- powered ships and trains Railroads and trains- enabled products/ideas to be quickly transmitted to other regions of the continent
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How did workers respond to the Industrial Revolution, and how did their version of society compare to Industrialists?
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Some accepted their status, but the majority protested against the unfair work practices Protests led to worker unions, the eventual establishment of anti-trust organizations/constitutional acts
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How did governments respond to the tremendous economic changes of the Industrial Revolution?
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In the United States, presidents and the federal government did nothing to stop the growth of big business The government banned slavery due to the shift in industrial economy In Japan, the government became more involved with business Developed larger armies due to an increase in wealth Competition between industrial nations
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How and why did some governments reform their practices because of the Industrial Revolution?
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The United States government favored big businesses in the court Eventually, the government turned against big businesses and several anti-monopoly acts were passed Had to deal with protesters Other governments pursued industrial activities to strengthen the state by adopting western technology
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How did the Industrial Revolution affect social and demographic transition?
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In industrial nations, the majority of the population lived in cities and urban areas Mortality rates/instances of illness increased because of unsanitary conditions Famines and food shortages were common Dramatic increase in technology
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What are the similarities and differences between colonialism and imperialism?
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Both involve the acquisition of land, the control of another nation Colonialism: refers to the immigration of people to a new territory who abide by the laws and customs of the mother country Imperialism: Primary workforce comes from natives of that territory rather than immigrants
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How did imperialism affect Europe’s influence around the world?
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Increases due to the greater presence of European colonies throughout the world
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Which states increased their influence and control over their pre-existing colonies, and which saw their influence decrease?
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Great Britain increased its control over India Spain lost control of Latin American colonies Great Britain also lost control of American colonies China increased control of their empire Persia and the Ottoman Empires weakened
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What methods and tactics did industrialized states use to establish and expand their empires?
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Europeans offered incentives to natives in exchange for their compliance Occupied powerful roles in court and office They used military force to stabilize the empire Indirect rule
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How did imperialism help, hurt, or change various states?
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African nations were impaired by the intervention of imperialistic Europeans The African population was largely decimated due to an increase in disease, plague, and violence Natives were exploited for unfair labor practices and raw materials were plundered by Europeans
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How did anti-imperialism affect the Ottoman Empire’s territories?
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Resistance of colonies led to the formation of independent states
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What were the effects of nationalism on various peoples and regions?
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Nationalism started revolutions to gain independence from their mother country The Jamaican Letter was an appeal to England to support Latin American in their fight for independence against Spain Anti-Imperialism in the Ottoman Empire also thrived off of nationalism and helped to create new territories
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How did imperialists justify imperialism?
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Social Darwinism- they were aiding natives through religious conversion and westernization Promise of new wealth achieved through greater access to raw materials
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How did both the Enlightenment and colonized peoples’ actions affect political developments after 1750?
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Political developments revolved around transportation and communication
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How did political rebellions affect the political structures and ideologies around the world?
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Often led to new laws to help resolve conflict Helped keep the government in check
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What role did the Enlightenment play in making political revolutions and rebellions possible?
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Citizens and peasants began to question the governments methods of control
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How did Enlightenment thinkers affect understandings of the relationship between the natural world and humans?
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They began to become closer to the natural world through a scientific perspective
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How did the Enlightenment evaluate the role of religion in public life?
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People began to question the need for religion Many people stopped observing their faith and became either atheists or agnostics
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What new political ideas: the individual, natural rights, and the social contract the the Enlightenment develop?
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Numerous new political ideas were developed Natural rights such as liberty, equality, life, and the pursuit of happiness began to affect how citizens lived their daily lives
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What social and political norms did Enlightenment thinkers challenge? What were the effects of their questioning?
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Rights to expansion and universal suffrage The abolition of slavery
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What is the basis of national identity and nationalism?
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Involves the social conditioning and personal behaviors that support a state’s decisions and actions. Involves an individual identifying with, or becoming attached to, one’s nation.
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How did governments use these new ideas on their population?
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Governments began to map territories and create new borders Populations began to increase, therefore increasing the size of states
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How did subject peoples relate to their ruling governments?
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Subjects became more involved in the government after ending monarchies by revolting and rebelling Ex. United States, Haiti, South America, and Latin America
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How did rebellions and revolutions in the America’s and Europe reflect Enlightenment ideals?
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Subjects used Enlightenment ideals such as life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness, as the basis for their rebellion
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How did slaves’ resistance affect existing authorities in the Americas?
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Slavery eventually was abolished in numerous countries, so societies used indentured servants or serfs as laborers.
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What was the relationship between nationalism and anti-colonialism?
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Nationalism is a belief, creed or political ideology that involves an individual identifying with, or becoming attached to, one’s nation Anti-colonialism is the opposition to colonialism, colonial empire, and imperialism. It includes opposition to wars of conquest, and wars meant to subjugate peoples of different cultures
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How did religion affect nationalism?
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Religious nationalism is the relationship of nationalism to a religious belief, dogma, or affiliation.
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How did imperial government react to nationalistic rebellions?
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Governments wanted to tighten their hold on their subjects, but feared if they increased their power to much, a revolution may break out
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What other new ideologies did the Enlightenment stimulate?
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The idea that all men were created equal- led to the freedom of slaves and emancipation of women Rulers should take into account the wishes and welfare of those they ruled Separation of church and state
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What new political ideologies developed from c. 1750-1900?
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Church and state should be separated Rulers should take into account the wishes and welfare of those they ruled
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What people or issues did Enlightenment thinkers ignore or overlook?
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Indigenous peoples Rebellion Dictatorship
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How did migrations in this period compare to earlier periods?
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People from Europe traveled to the Western Hemisphere in order to escape famine and other issues, as well as to start a new life. Also, people from throughout the world came to Americas because of the discovery of gold. They believed that they could travel to the United States, make a small fortune, and return home.
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What were the main social, economic, and political causes and effects of this new age of migrations?
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Political: governments eventually passed laws to prevent migration from certain areas Economic: migrants usually took up low paying jobs, such as railroad construction Social: The Americas and other areas became more diverse
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How did the Industrial Revolution affect migration pattern s during this period?
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People began to move to urban areas Cities began to get more crowded, resulting in poor living conditions and a lack of sanitation
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What were the causes of world population growth?
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Decrease in infant mortality Improved medical techniques- introduction of vaccines Higher life expectancy
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How did new modes of transportation affect migration?
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Migration became a quicker and easier process
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Why did people migrate?
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To escape serious issues, such as disease, famine, and poverty To receive better opportunities economically
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What were the economic motives behind migration?
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Possible increase in pay Economic benefits: better living conditions, etc.
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What types of migration were voluntary vs. involuntary?
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Voluntary: European migrants to the Americas. Any immigration in order to escape a specific issue Involuntary: Slaves migrating from Africa Prisoners migrating from Europe to Australia Indentured servants traveling away from their homeland in order to repay deby
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How permanent were migrations?
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It depends. Some were permanent, while others were only for a few years.
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What were the social consequences and reactions 19th century migrations?
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Spread of disease was more rapid: increase in death Declining birth rate
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How did migrants preserve and transplant their culture in their new homes?
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Prejudice and discrimination arose Communities for specific ethnic groups were formed
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How did receiving societies react to the new presence of foreign migrants?
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Certain citizens did not accept an increase in migration and tried to end it.

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