What major factors contributed to an increased volume of trade between 600 C.E. and 1450 C.E.?
Major factors such as improved transportation technologies and commercial practices led to an increased volume of trade.
Which four existing trade routes flourished between 600 C.E. and 1450 C.E.?
1) Silk Roads
2) Mediterranean Sea
4) Indian Ocean basin
Where did powerful new trading cities develop? Examples?
Powerful trade cities developed along the four main trade routes of this era. Some examples include:
• Swahili city-states
What regions of the Americas witnessed new trade routes between 600 C.E. and 1450 C.E.?
New trade routes that centered on Mesoamerica and the Andes developed.
What are some examples of the luxury goods that were traded between 600 C.E. and 1450 C.E.?
• Silk and cotton textiles
• Precious metals and gems
• Exotic animals
What new technologies assisted in the trade of luxury goods between 600 C.E. and 1450 C.E.?
The trade of luxury goods was assisted by the invention of new transportation technologies, such as: more sophisticated caravan organization, the compass, the astrolabe, and larger ships, as well as new economic technologies, such as bills of exchange, credit, checks, and banking houses.
What role the state play in trade between 600 C.E. and 1450 C.E.? Examples?
The state helped the growth of trade by developing new economic techniques such as the minting of coins and the use of paper money. Trading organizations were also created by the state, an example being the Hanseatic League. Finally, state-sponsored commercial infrastructures, like the Grand Canal in China, we’re created.
What was the Hanseatic League?
The Hanseatic League was a commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and their market towns that dominated trade along the coast of Northern Europe.
How was trans-Eurasian trade impacted by the expansion of existing empires between 600 C.E. and 1450 C.E.?
The expansion of existing empires impacted trans-Eurasian trade because the conquered peoples of smaller nations were drawn into the trade networks of their conquerors.
What is the connection between long-distance trade routes, environmental knowledge, and technological adaptations between 600 C.E. and 1450 C.E.?
In order for new longer-distance trade routes to be developed, humans were forced to gain a greater knowledge of the environment and create new technologies. An example of this is how the Scandinavian Vikings used their longboats to travel in coastal and open water, as well as rivers.
Which major migrations between 600 C.E. and 1450 C.E. are listed as having had a significant environmental impact? Why?
• Migration of Bantu-Speaking peoples → Iron technologies and agricultural techniques in Sub-Saharan Africa
• Maritime migrations of Polynesian peoples → Transplanted foods and domesticated animals on new islands
How was language development affected by migrations and commercial contacts between 600 C.E. and 1450 C.E.? Examples?
These migratinos and commercial contacts led to the diffusion of existing languages as well as a few new languages. Examples include the spread of Bantu languages, like Swahili, and the spread of Turkic and Arabic languages.
The beliefs and practices of Islam were impacted by interactions between Arabs and _____________.
the Jews, Christians, and Zoroastrians who lived among them.
How and to where did Islam expand between 600 C.E. and 1450 C.E.?
At first, Islam expanded to many parts of Afro-Eurasia by the usual method of military expansion. Subsequently, Islam continued to expand through the activities of merchants and missionaries.
What is a diasporic community and how did they form?
Diasporic communities formed when merchants introduced their own cultural traditions into the indigenous culture where they were selling their goods.
Which four important diasporic communities were established along trade routes between 600 C.E. and 1450 C.E.?
1) Muslim communities in the Indian Ocean region
2) Chinese communities in Southeast Asia
3) Sogdian communities in Central Asia
4) Jewish communities in the Mediterranean, Indian Ocean Basin, and Silk Roads
What do the writings of interregional travelers between 600 C.E. and 1450 C.E. illustrate?
These writings illustrate both the extent and limitation of intercultural knowledge and understanding.
Who are most notable interregional travelers between 600 C.E. and 1450 C.E.?
• Marco Polo
• Ibn Battuta
What are some examples of cultural diffusion that occurred as a result of cross-cultural interactions between 600 C.E. and 1450 C.E.?
• Neo-Confucianism and Buddhism in East Asia
• Hinduism and Buddhism in Southeast Asia
• Islam in sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia
• Toltec/Mexican and Inca traditions in Mesoamerica and the Andes
What are some examples of scientific and technological exchanges that occurred as a result of cross-cultural interactions between 600 C.E. and 1450 C.E.?
• Influence of Greek and Indian mathematics on Muslim scholars
• Return of Greek science and philosophy to western Europe via Muslims in Iberia
• Spread of printing and gunpowder technologies from East Asia to the Islamic empires and then into Western Europe
What are some examples of new foods and agricultural techniques that spread as a result of interregional trade and communication between 600 C.E. and 1450 C.E.?
• Bananas in Africa
• New rice varieties in East Asia
• Spread of cotton, sugar and citrus throughout Dar-al Islam
What role did trade play in the spread of epidemic disease? Examples?
Trade played a big role in the spread of epidemic decease, this is known because the decease always followed along the same routes that trade did.
What are the defining characteristics of state formation between 600 C.E. and 1450 C.E.?
State formation in this time period demonstrated remarkable continuity, innovation and diversity.
What is the new concept that Islam introduced to Afro-Eurasian statecraft? What is this?
Islam introduced the concept of the caliphate to Afr-Eurasion statecraft. The caliphate being the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. The political authority of a Caliph as head of state of a Caliphate comes from the fact that he is seen as a successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Name several important \”reconstituted\” governments that existed between 600 C.E. and 1450 C.E. What did these governments combine in their state forms? Provide several examples.
• Byzantine Empire
• Chinese Dynasties (Sui, Tang, and Song)
These governments basically combined old, reliable practices with innovations better suited to the current circumstance of the world. For example, the old practices of patriarchy and land-owning elites were brought together with new methods of taxation and tributary systems.
What are three examples of Islamic states that existed between 600 C.E. and 1450 C.E.?
1) the Abbasids
2) Muslim Iberia
3) Delhi sultanates
Where did new forms of government emerge between 600 C.E. and 1450 C.E.?
New forms of government emerged in various Islamic states, the Mongol Khanates and in various city-states.
What are some examples of the synthesis between local and borrowed traditions between 600 C.E. and 1450 C.E.?
Some examples of states synthesizing their own local traditions with some borrowed ones are:
• Persian traditions influencing Islamic state
• Chinese traditions influencing Japan
Which interregional contacts encouraged significant technological and cultural transfers between 600 C.E. and 1450 C.E.?
Contacts that occurred between Tang China and the Abbasids, across the Mongol empires, and during the Crusades encouraged significant technological and cultural transfers.
What technological innovations stimulated agriculture between 600 C.E. and 1450 C.E.?
Technological innovations such as champu rice varieties, the chinampa field systems, waru waru raised field cultivation in the Andean area, and the horse collar.
What were the primary types of exchanges taking place between 600 C.E. and 1450 C.E.?
The primary types of exchange was the transportation of crops from their indigenous homelands to equivalent climates in other regions.
What types of goods underwent expanded production between 600 C.E. and 1450 C.E.?
Production of textiles, porcelains, iron and steel expanded.
What are some of the defining characteristics of cities between 600 C.E. and 1450 C.E.?
Some of the defining characteristics of these cities was a mix of periods of decline with periods of increased urbanization, as well as a focus on the expansion of trade networks.
What four factors contributed to the decline of urban areas between 600 C.E. and 1450 C.E.?
3) Decline of agricultural productivity
4) The Little Ice Age
What five factors contributed to urban revival between 600 C.E. and 1450 C.E.?
1) The end of invasions
2) The availability of safe and reliable transport
3) The rise of commerce
4) The warmer temperatures between 800 C.E. and 1300 C.E.
5) Increased agricultural productivity → rise in population
Name two important cities from the time period 600 C.E. and 1450 C.E. What are their defining political, cultural, and economic attributes?
What forms of labor organization prevailed between 600 C.E. and 1450 C.E.?
• Free peasant agriculture
• Nomadic pastoralism
• Craft production and guild organization
• Various forms of coerced and unfree labor
• Government -imposed labor taxes
• Military obligations
What shaped social structures between 600 C.E. and 1450 C.E.?
Social structures were shaped largely by class and caste hierarchies, just as in previous periods.
Among which people did women gain more power and influence between 600 C.E. and 1450 C.E.?
The most notable example of this occurring is within the mongols. However, women also gained power among the peoples of West Africa, Japan, and Southeast Asia.
What forms of coerced labor appeared between 600 C.E. and 1450 C.E.?
• Serfdom in Europe and Japan
• Mit’a in the Inca Empire
For what reasons did peasant communities in China and the Byzantine Empire stage revolts between 600 C.E. and 1450 C.E.?
Taxes. The peasant communities formed revolts in order to protest against the raising of taxes.
For what reasons did the demand for slaves increase between 600 C.E. and 1450 C.E.?
There was an increase of need for agricultural workers as well as soldiers during this era.