AP World History No Significances First Semester

Flashcard maker : Stephanie Landry
Australopithecus
genus of human ancestors that lived in Africa, now extinct
Homo Erectus
human ancestor that had upright skeletons, stronger builds than the Australopithecus, but smaller brains then H. Sapiens
Homo Sapeins
current humans, larger brains allowed for more success than the H. Erectus
Paleolithic Age
\”old stone age,\” beginning of stone tools for convince, associated with foraging culture
Hunting/Gathering Culture
\”foraging,\” groups follow game and plant in order to survive
Cro-Magnon
early modern humans (h. sapiens sapiens) found in the Old World
Venus Figurines
figures of women with enhanced sexual characteristics, thought to promote fertility
Sympathetic Magic
cave paintings left by Cro-Magnons
Neolithic
\”new stone age\” characterized by polished tools and the agricultural transition
Agricultural Transition
period of centuries in which humans transitioned from hunter/gathering culture to neolithic agriculture
Metallurgy
metalworking, manipulation of metals into tools or jewelry
Venus Figurines
figures of women with enhanced sexual characteristics, thought to promote fertility
Gilgamesh
a legendary Sumerian king who was the hero of an epic collection of mythic stories, reigned around 5700BCE
Sargon of Akkad
a conqueror from Akkad, north of Sumer, who conquered all of Mesopotamia to create the first empire
Hammurabi
Babylonian king who codified the laws of Sumer and Mesopotamia
Nebuchadnezzar
a Babylonian king who conquered Jerusalem and sent Jews into exile
King David
leaded and unified Israel
King Solomon
Son of King David, established Jerusalem
Moses
prophet who preached about Yahweh
Epic of Gilgamesh
collection of works glorifying Gilgamesh
Mesopotamia
site of the first empire, located between the Tigris and Euphrates
Sumer
southern Mesopotamia, also known as Sumeria
Tigris
a river in southwestern Asia; begins in eastern Turkey and joins the Euphrates river, border of the Mesopotamian society
Euphrates
a river that begins in Turkey, flows through Syria and Iraq, and empties into the Persian Gulf, border of the Mesopotamian society.
Akkad
northern Mesopotamian city state, where Sargon led his army to create the first empire
Hammurabi’s Code
set of laws set forth my Hammurabi
Lex talionis
law of retaliation \”an eye for an eye\”
Assyrians
a group of people to take over the Fertile Crescent
New Babylonia
new Babylonian empire after much turmoil
Bronze
an alloy of copper and tin
Iron
an alloy made of iron and copper
Patriarchy
a form of social organization in which a male is the family head and title is traced through the male line
Cuneiform
an ancient wedge-shaped script used in Mesopotamia and Persia
Hebrews
one of the first groups of people to believe in one God
Palestine
former name of the area that today includes Israel
Israel
northern part of the Palestine empire
Judea
southern part of the Palestine empire
Ten Commandments
list of rules made by Yehwah, presented by Moses
Torah
book of scriptures made by Jewish prophets
Phoenicians
sailing and trading people who had many colonies on the Mediterranean coast
Indo-Europeans
group of languages that extends from southern Asia to the Iberian Peninsula
Hittites
peoples from Anatolia (modern day Turkey)
India
modern day country, land of the Aryans, Dravidians, and Harappan Society
Aryans
Indo-European speaking nomads who entered India from the Central Asian steppes between 1500 and 1000 BC
Dravidians
a settled, well-organized people who built cities in India
Harappan Society
first Indian civilization
Indus River
river near pakistan that creates a fertile plain (Indus River Valley)
Harappa
large ancient city of the Indus civilization, created in present-day Pakistan
Mohenjo-Daro
early Indian settlement, laid out in a grid pattern with irrigation and sewage
Sanskrit
sacred language by the Vedas in India, mainly for religion
Prakrit
ordinary language used in India, but still formal enough for writing
Vedas
Sanskrit writings, earliest known of Hinduism
Rig Veda
first Vedas scripture, deals with spirituality, science, etc
Raja
title given to an Indian prince or king
Punjab
area between Indus and Ganges river
Ganges River
important river in India, supplied water
Caste
Hindu social rank based on wealth and profession
Varna
class of which a person was placed into according to Hindu law at birth
Brahmans
first level of Varna, priest class of Indian society
Kshatriyas
second level of Varna, warrior class of Indian society
Vaishyas
third level of Varna, merchant class of Indian society
Shudras
fourth level of Varna, servant class of Indian society
Jati
sub Varna, groups for economic development
Patriarchy
a form of social organization in which a male is the family head and title is traced through the male line
Lawbook of Manu
guidelines formed based on Hindu beliefs
Sati
ritual requiring women to commit suicide at their husband’s funeral
Varuna
god thought to view people from the heavens, also god of the sky and creation
Soma
the body, according to tradition
Upanishads
group of peoples that contributed to older Vedas
Brahman
the Universal spirit of which we are all made
Samsara
idea of reincarnation back into suffering
Karma
idea that a person’s actions determined their incarnation
Moksha
idea that a person can break Samsara to join Brahman
Land Bridges
exposed land masses that appeared when most of the world was covered in ice, used as passages to new lands
Olmecs
earliest known Mexican civilization, developed calendar and constructed public buildings and temples
Maya
civilization in Guatemala and the Yucat√°n Peninsula, about A.D. 250 to 900
Tikal
largest ancient Mayan city in Guatemala
Chichén Itzá
Mayan kingdom that attempted to bring political stability to the region by forcing other city states to subject to its power and rule
Popol Vuh
Mayan creation epic, taught that god created humans out of maize and water
Ball game
team sport in Mesoamerica, losers were sacrificed to the gods
Teotihuacan
a powerful city-state in central Mexico, with over 150000 inhabitants at its peak
Chavín
a culture that thrived in the Andean region from about 900 B.C. to 200 B.C.
Mochica
Andean society with much technology but no writing, known for their detailed works of art
Austronesians
people who began to explore and settle islands of the Pacific Ocean basin
Lapita
Austronesian population that emerged from Taiwan
Sima Qian
Chinese astronomer, scholar, historian, wrote historical records for China
Confucius
political and ethical philosopher from China
Mencius
Confucius’s greatest disciple, wrote Analects
Xunzi
Confucian follower, suggested humans are lazy and required a totalitarian government to make them good
Laozi
wrote the philosophical ideas of Taosim, advocated humility and piety
Shang Yang
founder of legalism, idea that proposed government and expanding borders over everything else
Han Feizi
advocate of strict legalism
Qin Shi Huang
unified China, major engineering projects such as canals and roads, standardized measurements and money
Liu Bang
Overthrew Qin dynasty, first emperor of Han dynasty
Han Wudi
most prominent and important Han dynasty empire, created public school system
Wang Mang
Confucian scholar, overthrew Liu family to create Xin Dynasty, tried to help the poor and implement land reforms
Confucianism
the teachings of Confucius, emphasized kindness and love
Ren
Confucian virtue of benevolence, stating that a person will make the correct choice regardless of outcome
Li
Confucian virtue of reverence
Xiao
Confucian idea that one should respect parents and ancestors above all others
Daoism
philosophy based from works from Laozi, that one should be pious and humble
Wu Wei
idea that we should know what to do and when
Legalism
idea that proposed government and expanding borders over everything else
Qin Dynasty
first Dynasty, built Great Wall, unified China, established standards, constructed canals and roads
Han Dynasty
Dynasty that increased its power and borders, second to the Qin Dynasty
Xiongnu
confederation of nomadic tribes in Central Asia
Sericulture
production of raw silk by raising silkworms
Yellow Turban Uprising
revolt in China over land management disputes in second-century CE
Chandragupta Maurya
founded India’s first empire, was an Indian prince who conquered a large area in the Ganges River valley soon after Alexander invaded western India
Kautalya
Advisor of Chandragupta who wrote ancient political handbook known as the Arthashastra, a manual offering detailed instructions on the uses of power and the principles of government
Ashoka
grandson of Chandragupta Maurya; completed conquests of Indian subcontinent; converted to Buddhism and sponsored spread of new religion throughout his empire
Kanishka
one of the greatest leaders of the Kushan Empire in India
Chandra Gupta
the founder and ruler of the Gupta Empire
Vardhamana Mahavira
Indian ascetic philosopher and the principal founder of Jainism
Siddhartha Gautama
founder of Buddhism; born a prince; left his father’s wealth to find the cause of human suffering; also know as Buddha
Kingdom of Magadha
located in the central portion of the Ganges plain, most important state in northeastern India during the Mauryan dynasty
Maurya Empire
Indian empire founded by Chandragupta, beginning with his kingdom in northeastern India and spreading to most of northern and central India
Bactria
in Northwestern India, and ruled by Greek-speaking descendants of Alexander’s campaigns, modern day Afghanistan
Kushan Empire
located in Northern India/Central Asia, maintained Silk Road
Gupta Dynasty
ruling family in India during its golden age, responsible for many achievements in math and science
White Huns
nomadic invaders from central Asia; invaded India; disrupted Gupta administration
Caste
a social class separated from others by distinctions of hereditary rank or profession or wealth
Jainism
a religion that branched off from Hinduism and was founded by Mahavira; its belief is that everything has a soul, and its purpose was to cleanse the soul, some were extreme aesthetics
Buddhism
a world religion or philosophy based on the teaching of the Buddha and holding that a state of enlightenment can be attained by suppressing worldly desire
Nalanda
a famous Buddhist university and monastary located in the eastern Ganges Valley
Hinduism
a religion and philosophy developed in ancient India, characterized by a belief in reincarnation and a supreme being who takes many forms
Homer
ancient Greek epic poet who is believed to have written down the Iliad and the Odyssey
Solon
Athenian reformer of the 6th century; established laws that eased the burden of debt on farmers, forbade enslavement for debt
Perciles
led rebuilding of Athens for more than 30 years from 461BCE to 429BCE
Philip of Macedon
father of Alexander of Macedon, unified the warring Greek city-states
Alexander of Macedon
also known as Alexander the Great, by 331 BCE, controlled Syria, Egypt, Mesopotamia; invaded Persian homeland and burned Persepolis; crossed the Indus by 327
Sappho
Greek poet who wrote about human emotions, lived on island of Lesbos
Socrates
philosopher who believed in an absolute right or wrong; asked students pointed questions to make them use their reason, later became Socratic method
Plato
considered the greatest philosopher, student of Socrates, known for his Ideas theory
Artistotle
prominent Greek philosopher, noted for his philosophically based thoughts of \”science\”
Euripides
writer of several tragedies involving war and its misery
Aristophanes
an ancient Greek dramatist remembered for his comedies
Minoan society
society that inhabited Crete, created an undeciphered script, fell to invaders around 1100 BCE
Knossos
prominent ancient town on Crete where Bronze Age culture flourished from about 2000 BC to 1400 BCE
Linear A
an undeciphered writing system used in Crete in the 17th century BCE
Mycenaean society
Greek civilization created by Indo- Europeans that lasted from 1600- 1100 BCE, during which large palaces were made, wars fought, trade established; earthquakes and invaders caused it to finally collapse
Linear B
the modern name for the script, composed of signs and pictures, in which Mycenaean Greeks kept records on tablets of clay
Trojan War
war (around 1200 B.C.), in which an army lead by Mycenaean kings attacked the city of Troy in Anatolia (trojan horse!)
Polis
general Greek city-state, including the city and the land around it
Sparta
Greek city-state that was ruled by an oligarchy, focused on military, used slaves for agriculture, discouraged the arts
Athens
powerful city in Ancient Greece that was a leader in arts, sciences, philosophy, democracy and architecture
Persian War
conflict between Persia and Greece; Persia wanted to punish Athens for helping another city-state
Delian League
alliance of city-states with Athens as leader, made to keep fighting Persia
Peloponnesian War
a war in which Athens and its allies were defeated by the league centered on Sparta
Macedon
ancient kingdom of Philip II and Alexander of Macedon in the southeastern Balkans
Hellenistic Age
period between the death of Alexander the Great (323 BCE) and the conquest of Egypt by Rome (30 BCE), marked by migrations to the newly conquered areas
Antigonid empire
the area of Macedon and Greece, the smallest of the Hellenistic empires; cities such as Athens and Corinth flourished during the Hellenistic age and cities were overpopulated
Ptolemaic empire
The empire in the Egyptian area after the breakup of Alexander’s empire
Seleucid empire
the largest kingdom that came of the division of Alexander’s empire
Olympic games
one of the panhellenic rituals observed by all Greek city-states; involved athletic competitions and ritual celebrations
Forms or Ideas
term used by Plato to refer to traits in physical objects, ex: manly, beauty, etc.
Cult of Dionysus
cult based on Dionysus, had many rituals involving orgies and drinking, later transitioned to a more civilized cult
Stoicism
defitinion: philosophical system of the Stoics (person who can tolerate pain) following the teachings of the ancient Greek philosopher Zeno
Romulus
Founder of Rome; twin of Remus; killed his own twin brother Remus over disputes on the building of Rome
Gracchi Brothers
Tried to equally distribute land but upper classes did not want to give up land; were both assassinated
Marius
A general that advocated redistribution of land; he took down his political enemies and died the next year
Sulia
Took over after Marius died and posted lists of his enemies (\”Enemies of the State\”) that were to be killed on the spot if found; killed about 10,000 people by the time her died
Julius Caesar
Conquered Rome and made himself dictator for life; gave building jobs to those of the lower classes; was stabbed to death by elite class members who found him a tyrant
Augustus Caesar
Nephew of Julius; original name Octavian; defeated Mark Anthony and Cleopatra; ruled for 45yrs; Senate gave him the name Augustus (divine nature of its holder); developed a monarchy disguised as a republic
Cicero
Roman statesman and orator remembered for his mastery of Latin prose
Jesus
Teacher and prophet born in Bethlehem and active in Nazareth
Paul of Tarsus
Supported Christianity and was put to death for it
Etruscans
People who dominated most of Italy; built successful cities; had many alliances; traded frequently; had bronze, iron, gold, and silver; defeated by Greeks
Roman Senate
A council of wealthy and powerful Romans that advised the city’s leaders
Punic Wars
Fought between Rome and Carthage over Sicily and Mediterranean trade
Twelve tables
The basic law code for citizens of the early republic
Roman roads
Were built for easy transportation and communication; had curbs; had drainage; were topped with stone; were 2-8 meters (6-26ft) wide depending on the location; had postal stops along the roads
Colosseum
Marble stadium and sports arena that had seating for 50,000 people; had an awning to protect spectators from weather
Patricians
the wealthy class in Roman society; landowners
Plebeians
Members of the lower class of Ancient Rome including farmers, merchants, artisans and traders
Stoicism
Idea that there are moral laws governing the universe; followers are generally indifferent to pain and pleasure.
Mithraism
ancient Persian religion that was later adapted to values of courage, honor, etc
Cult of Isis
Was a cult devoted the Egyptian goddess Isis. It allowed both men and women into the cult. They felt she was a protective goddess who neutered her worshipers and helped them coped with the stress. It also offered Salvation
Essenes
Religious group which believed the temple of worship was impure
Judaism
Monotheistic religion of the Jews having its spiritual and ethical principles embodied chiefly in the Torah and in the Talmud
Christianity
Monotheistic system of beliefs and practices based on the Old Testament and the teachings of Jesus as embodied in the New Testament and emphasizing the role of Jesus as savior
New Testament
The collection of books of the Gospels, Acts of the Apostles, the Pauline and other Epistles, and Revelation
Sermon on the Mount
The first major discourse delivered by Jesus
Latifundia
Farming plantations for the wealthy
Pax Romana
\”Roman Peace\” Augustus created a time of peace that lasted for 2 and 1/2 centuries
Mare nostrum
\”Our Sea,\” started to call the Mediterranean the Roman Lake
Pater familias
\”Father of the Family\”; had the authority to arrange marriages, determined duties, and punish; had rights to sell them into slavery and execute them
Zhang Qian
on expedition; sent by Wudi in 139 BC; general and explorer; 13 years later his troops went back nearly wiped out by barbarian attacks and were in captivity for 10 years
Han Wudi
most prominent and important Han dynasty empire, created public school system
Gregory the Wonderworker
a tireless missionary with a reputation for performing miracles and who popularized Christianity in central Anatolia
Mani
self characterized as Apostle of Christ, originally part of judaizing christian community, Book of Mani’s life and teachings was found in small book in Egypt, 216-274
Diocletian
He was a Roman general turned emperor who introduced reforms
Constantine
Emperor of Rome who adopted the Christian faith and stopped the persecution of Christians
Attila
Leader of the Huns who put pressure on the Roman Empire’s borders during the 5th century
Odoacer
A Germanic general who deposed the Roman emperor in 476, marking the fall of the Western Roman Empire
St. Augustine
Scholar that later converted to Christianity, helped explain history and science from a Christian point of view.
Silk roads
a system of ancient caravan routes across Central Asia, along which traders carried silk and other trade goods.
Monsoon system
rainy season in southern Asia when the southwestern monsoon blows, bringing heavy rains
Rhapta
principal commercial center on east African coast, contributed ivory, tortoise shell, and slaves and dominated East African trade
Buddhism
a world religion or philosophy based on the teaching of the Buddha and holding that a state of enlightenment can be attained by suppressing worldly desire
Hinduism
a religion and philosophy developed in ancient India, characterized by a belief in reincarnation and a supreme being who takes many forms
Christianity
Monotheistic system of beliefs and practices based on the Old Testament and the teachings of Jesus as embodied in the New Testament and emphasizing the role of Jesus as savior
Nestorians
Christian sect found in Asia; tended to support Islamic invasions of this area in preference to Byzantine rule; cut off from Europe by Muslim invasions
Manichaeism
formed with a combination of Christianity, Zoroastriaism, Buddhism, and Judism
Epidemic
a widespread outbreak of an infectious disease
Yellow Turban
a rebellion in the Han dynasty by peasants that brought down the dynasty because of unequal distribution of land
Barracks emperors
generals who seized power, held it briefly, and they lost it when they were displaced by rivals or their own mutinous troops
Visigoths
member of the western Goths that invaded the Roman Empire in the fourth century A.D. and settled in France and Spain, establishing a monarchy that lasted until the early eighth century
Huns
people who migrated from Eastern Europe into territory controlled by Germanic tribes, forcing them to move into areas controlled by Rome
Edict of Milan
issued by Constantine in 313, ended the \”great persecution\” and legalized Christianity in the Roman Empire
Council of Nicaea
Christian council that met in 325 to determine the question of the trinity; decided on the divinity of all three persons.
Procopius
Wrote about the smuggling of silk worms and sericulutre techniques from China
Constantine
Roman Emperor (4th century A.D.) who promoted tolerance to all religions in the Roman Empire and legalized Christianity
Justinian
Byzantine emperor in the 6th century A.D., initiated an ambitious building program, including Hagia Sofia, as well as a new legal code
Theodora
the wife of Justinian, originally a prostitute
Belisarius
Justinian’s top general who reconquered much of Africa and tried to reconquer Europe
Basil II
Bulgar-slayer, using themes he moved west and destroyed the Bulgars
Liudprand of Cremona
an ambassador whom Otto sent on a diplomatic mission to Constantinople in 968, insulted Byzantium and its emperor
Arius
theologist who didn’t accept that Jesus was divine (Arianism) and was outlawed as a heretic
Leo III
imposed iconoclasm for fear that they were being worshiped as physical idols
St. Simeon Stylites
popular Pillar saint, influenced the creation of monastaries
St. Basil of Caesarea
urged reforms of monasteries that increased their efficiency
St. Cyril
first of two popular missionaries that invented the Cyrillic alphabet and used that to explain the Bible
St. Methodius
second of two popular missionaries that invented the Cyrillic alphabet and used that to explain the Bible
Vladimir of Kiev
convert to Christianity, despite being a drunkard
Byzantion
a modest market town turned military and economic center of the Byzantine empire
Constantinople
the capital of the eastern Roman Empire and later of the Byzantine Empire
Caesaropapism
the doctrine that the state is supreme over the church in ecclesiastical matters
Hagia Sophia
the Cathedral of Holy Wisdom in Constantinople, built by order of the Byzantine emperor Justinian
Corpus iuris civilis
\”Body of Civil Law,\” Justinian’s codification of Roman law
Greek fire
a mixture used by Byzantine Greeks that was often shot at adversaries that would ignite
Theme
administrative division of the Byzantium empire in which generals would oversee aristocrats to keep the free peasantry strong
Bezant
Byzantine gold coin; the standard currency of the Byzantium empire
Hippodrome
the Colosseum of the Byzantian empire where the Greens and Blues were held
Greens and Blues
teams that fought in the Hippodrome and caused major social unrest
Arianism
doctrine stating that Jesus was not God but created by God, taught by Arius
Iconoclasm
deliberate destruction within a culture of the culture’s own religious icons and other symbols or monuments, usually for religious or political motives
Pillar saints
saints that prayed on pillars to demonstrate their aesthetic lifestyle
Mount Athos
an autonomous area in northeastern Greece that is the site of several Greek Orthodox monasteries founded in the tenth century
Eastern Orthodox Church
Christian followers in the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire); split from Roman Catholic Church and shaped life in eastern Europe
Crusades
series of holy wars from 1096-1270 AD undertaken by European Christians to free the Holy Land from Muslim rule
Battle of Manzikert
battle between the Byzantine Empire and Seljuk Turks (Muslims) in 1071, where the Byzantine lost
Saljuqs
Turkish tribe that gained control over the Abbasid empire and fought with the Byzantine empire, sealed their grain
Ottomans
Turks who had come to Anatolia in the same wave of migrations as the Seljuks
Bulgars
defeated Eastern Romans, took possession of the lower Danube River, set base for Bulgarian kingdom
Cyrillic alphabet
Russian alphabet, brought by Greek Orthodox Christian missionaries who brought Christianity to Russia
Kiev
trade city in southern Russia established by Scandinavian traders in 9th century; became focal point for kingdom of Russia that flourished to 12th century
Muhammad
the Arab prophet who founded Islam (570-632)
Abu Bakr
companion of 1st Muslim leader after Muhammad, regarded by Sunni’s as the 1st caliph and rightful successor
Ali
the fourth caliph of Islam who is considered to be the first caliph by Shiites
Abu al-Abbas
Leader of rebellion in Persia that led to the downfall of the Umayyad
Harun al-Rashid
fifth and most famous Abbasid Caliph in Iraq
Al-Ghazali
Islamic theologian who struggled to fuse Greek and Koranic traditions
Omar Khayyam
Persian poet and mathematician and astronomer whose poetry was popularized by Edward Fitzgerald’s translation (1050-1123)
Ibn Rushd
tried to blend Aristotle’s and Plato’s views with those of Islam- argued that Greek philosophy had the same goal: to find the truth.
Islam
the monotheistic religion of Muslims founded in Arabia in the 7th century and based on the teachings of Muhammad as laid down in the Koran
Muslim
a believer or follower of Islam
Dar al-Islam
religious conceptualization of the world as belonging either to Muslim or non-Muslim territory, exists within Islam
Mecca
City in western Arabia; birthplace of the Prophet Muhammad, and ritual center of the Islamic religion
Quran (Koran)
the sacred writings of Islam revealed by God to the prophet Muhammad during his life at Mecca and Medina
Hadith
a tradition based on reports of the sayings and activities of Muhammad and his companions
Medina
a city in western Saudi Arabia to where Muhammad had fled
Hijra
The Migration of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina in A.D. 622, marking the founding of Islam
Umma
the Muslim community or people, considered to extend from Mauritania to Pakistan
Seal of the Prophets
name recognizing Muhammad as the last and greatest prophet
Kaaba
a black stone building in Mecca that is shaped like a cube and that is the most sacred Muslim pilgrim shrine
Five Pillars of Islam
the five basic acts of worship that are central to Islam (Faith, Prayer, Fasting, Alms, Pilgrimage)
Sharia
the code of law derived from the Koran and from the teachings and example of Muhammed
Caliph
the civil and religious leader of a Muslim state considered to be a representative of Allah on earth
Umayyad
the dynasty caliphs whose capital was Damascus, one of the largest empires ever
Shia
the branch of Islam whose members acknowledge Ali and his descendants as the rightful successors of Muhammad
Abbasid
The dynasty that came after the Umayyads, devoted their energy to trade, scholorship, and the arts
Ulama
Orthodox religious scholars within Islam; pressed for a more conservative and restrictive theology
Qadis
Muslim judges who carried out the judicial functions of the state
Sultan
the ruler of a Muslim country (especially of the former Ottoman Empire)
Caravanserai
an inn in some Eastern countries with a large courtyard that provides accommodation for caravans
Al-Andalus
Arabic name given to a nation in the parts of the Iberian Peninsula governed by Muslims
Sufis
a mystical Muslim group that believed they could draw closer to God through prayer, fasting, and a simple life
Hajj
the fifth pillar of Islam, a pilgrimage to Mecca
Xuanzang
Buddhist monk that illegally visited India; popularized Buddhism in China (629 C.E.)
Huang Chao
military commander that led an uprising of Eastern China for almost a decade (875-884) that helped to bring the Tang to a close
Du Fu
a famous chinese poet who wrote \”spring landscape\” and his poems were base on the suffering of his own life
Li Bo
Most famous poet of the Tang era; blended images of the mundane world with philosophical musings.
Zhu Xi
(1130-1200) Most prominent of neo-Confucian scholars during the Song dynasty in China
Sui
a dynasty (581 to 618) that rebuilt the Great Wall and began canal building, restored centralized rule after war
Grand Canal
an inland waterway 1000 miles long in eastern China built by the Sui dynsaty
Tang
the imperial dynasty of China from 618 to 907, restored centralized rule after war
Chang’an
ancient capital of more than ten dynasties in Chinese history, today known as Xi’an
Equal field system
inheritance system where 1/5 of the land when to the peasant’s descendants and the rest went to the government
Bureaucracy of merit
civil service examinations; based on Confucian education – no longer decided by family lineage
Middle Kingdom
refers to China because the people believed that their land stood between heaven and Earth
Uighurs
A group of Turkic-speakers who controlled their own centralized empire from 744 to 840 in Mongolia and Central Asia.
Song
the imperial dynasty of China from 960 to 1279
Khitan
Nomadic peoples of Manchuria; militarily superior to Song dynasty China but influenced by Chinese culture
Jurchen
nomadic people that conquered Khitan, overran northern China, and captured the Song capital
Foot binding
practice in Chinese society to mutilate women’s feet in order to make them smaller
Dunhuang
A Chinese city on the edge of Taklimaken desert; all silk road routes reached this point
Chan Buddhism
Known as Zen in Japan; stressed meditation and appreciation of natural and artistic beauty; popular with members of elite Chinese society
Neo-Confucianism
term that describesthe resurgence of Confusianism and the influence of Confucian scholars during the Tang dynasty
Silla
Independent Korean kingdom in southeastern part of peninsula; defeated Koguryo along with their Chinese Tang allies
Vietnam
a southern state below China
Nara Japan
Japanese period (710-794) centered around city of Nara, that was the highest point of Chinese influence
Heian period
(794 – 1100) move the capital to Heian; 300 years of developing a new culture; growth of large estates
Tale of Genji
story of Prince Genji and his lovers, written by Lady Murasaki Shikibu at end of 11th century, world’s first full novel
Minamoto
Defeated the rival Taira family in Gempei Wars and established military government (bakufu) in 12th century Japan
Shogun
a hereditary military dictator of Japan
Kamakura
Yorimoto’s capital during his shogunate, destroyed in 1331
Muromachi
later medieval period of Japan that ran from 1336 – 1573 CE; during the two periods, Japan developed a decentralized political order
Samurai
a Japanese warrior who was a member of the feudal military aristocracy
Bushido
traditional code of the Japanese samurai which stressed courage and loyalty and self-discipline and simple living
Seppuku
Ritual suicide or disembowelment in Japan; commonly known in West as hara-kiri; demonstrated courage and a means to restore family honor
Buzurg ibn Shahriyar
A storytelling mariner who came from the emporium of Siraf on the Persian Gulf
Harsha
7th century north Indian ruler; built a large state that declined after his death 646 (last true Hindu ruler)
Mahmud of Ghazni
third ruler of Turkish slave dynasty in Afghanistan; led invasions of northern India; credited with sacking one of wealthiest of Hindu temples in northern India; gave Muslims reputation for intolerance and aggression
Harihara and Bukka
two brothers dispatched by officials in Delhi to represent the sultan and implement court policies in the sought. Converted from Hinduism to Islam; in 1336 they renounced Islam, returned to Hindu faith, and proclaimed of an established empire, independent empire of Vijayanagar
Shankara
southern India; tried to harmonize all the Hindu writings
Raminuja
taught in the hands of Vishnu one will win god’s grace and live in presence
Sind
Indus River valley in NW India; conquered in 711; fringe of Islamic world
Sultanate of Delhi
the kingdom established by Mahmud’s succesors to spread islam in India
Chola Kingdom
kingdom situated in the deep south. At its high point, Chola forces conquered Ceylon and parts of southeast Asia, funded by the profits of trade, dominated the sea, did not build a tightly centralized state
Vijayanagar
independent empire proclaimed by Harihara and Bukka; \”city of victory\”. Dominate state in southern India until 1565
Monsoons
seasonal wind patterns that cause wet and dry seasons
Dhows
Arab sailing vessels with triangular or lateen sails; strongly influenced European ship design
Junks
Chinese ships equipped with watertight bulkheads, sternpost rudders, compasses, and bamboo fenders; dominant force in Asian seas east of the Malayan peninsula
Kingdom of Axum
Christian kingdom in Ethiopia
Caste System
a social structure in which classes are determined by heredity
Vishnu
A Hindu god considered the preserver of the world
Shiva
an important Hindu deity who in the trinity of gods was the Destroyer
Sufis
a mystical Muslim group that believed they could draw closer to God through prayer, fasting, and a simple life
Bhakti
Indian movement that attempted to transcend the differences between Hinduism and Islam
Funan
Early complex society in Southeast Asia between the first and sixth centuries C.E.
Srivijaya
Southeast Asian kingdom, based on the island of Sumatra that used a powerful navy to dominate trade
Angkor
Southeast Asian Khmer kingdom (889-1432) that was centered around temple cities
Melaka
the first major center of Islam in Southeast Asia, a port kingdom on the southwestern coast of the Malay Peninsula
Clovis
king of the Franks who unified Gaul and established his capital at Paris and founded the Frankish monarchy
Charles Martel
Carolingian monarch of Franks; responsible for defeating Muslims in battle of Tours in 732; ended Muslim threat to western Europe
Charlemagne
king of the Franks and Holy Roman Emperor
Pope Leo III
crowned Charlemagne the \”Holy Roman Emperor\”
Gregory of Tours
literate monk who wrote the History of the Franks and some of the other few surviving histories of the Early Middle Ages
Louis the Pious
third son of Charlemagne and king of the Caroligian Empire and Holy Roman Emperor
Alfred
king of Wessex 871-899; known as Alfred the Great. His military resistance saved southwestern England from Viking occupation
Otto I
king of Germany and Holy Roman Emperor
Pope Gregory I
was most important figure for providing Roman church with sense of direction; \”Gregory the Great\”; mobilized local resources and organized defense of Rome
St. Benedict of Nursia
Italian monk who created a set of rules for Western monasteries in the 6th century
St. Scholastica
twin sister of Benedict; devoted her life to the Church
Franks
group of Germanic people who rose to prominence under the leadership of King Clovis
Aachen
capital of Charlemagne’s empire, c. 800; a city in present-day Germany
Missi dominici
official appointed by Charlemagne who investigated if the counties were obeying his rules
Magyars
Muslims who attacked Europe and converted to Christianity and established Hungary
Vikings
Scandinavian pirates who plundered the coasts of Europe from the 8th to 10th centuries
Holy Roman Empire
the lands ruled by Charlemagne
Lords
people of high rank who received land in exchange for their loyalty
Retainers
a servant or attendant, especially one in the household of a person of high rank
Benefice
a gift given for service performed, usually land
Manor
a large estate, often including farms and a village, ruled by a lord
Serf
a person who is bound to the land and owned by the feudal lord
Heavy plow
agricultural invention that allowed people to migrate to colder climates and produce more food
Papacy
the government of the Roman Catholic Church
Monasticism
set of responsibilities taken by monasteries
Rule of Saint Benedict
basic guide for religious life and discipline in a monastery
Mahmud of Ghazni
third ruler of Turkish slave dynasty in Afghanistan; led invasions of northern India; credited with sacking one of the wealthiest of Hindu temples in northern India; gave Muslims reputation for intolerance and aggression
Chinggis Khan
a mongol who united mongol and Turkish tribes, began campaign west, using fear as a tactic
Marco Polo
Venetian traveler who explored Asia in the 13th century and served Kublai Khan (1254-1324)
Khubilai Khan
last of the Mongol Great Khans (r. 1260-1294) and founder of the Yuan Empire
Tamerlane
Mongolian ruler of Samarkand who led his nomadic hordes to conquer an area from Turkey to Mongolia (1336-1405)
Osman
most successful warrior and \”founder\” of Ottomans
Turks
a member of the Turkish-speaking ethnic group in Turkey, or, formerly, in the Ottoman Empire
Yurts
large, circle-shaped tents made of animal hides, also called gurs
Kumiss
an alcoholic drink prepared from animal products by fermenting mare’s milk into a potent concoction
Shamans
medicine men or women who treat people with mental problems by driving out their demons with elaborate rituals, such as exorcisms, incantations, and prayers
Khan
a Mongol ruler
Saljuq Turks
Turkish tribe that gained control over the Abbasid empire and fought with Byzantine
Sultan
the ruler of a Muslim country (especially of the former Ottoman Empire)
Manzikert
site where Saljuq forces inflicted a devastating defeat on the Byzantine army in 1071
Karakorum
capital of the Mongol empire under Chinggis Khan, 1162 – 1227
Khanbaliq
\”city of the khan\”; previously ruled by Jurchens but was new capital for the Mongols
Chaghatai
one of Chinggis Khan’s sons whose descendents rued the khanate of Chaghatai
Golden Horde
a Mongolian army that swept over eastern Europe in the 13th century
Yuan Dynasty
the imperial dynasty of China from 1279 to 1368
Ilkhanate of Persia
Abbasid empire toppled, Baghdad sacked, 1258
Lamaist Buddhism
prominent place for magic and supernatural powers; recognized Mongol leaders as legitimate rulers
Uighur Turks
among the most important of the Mongols’ allies were these people, who lived mostly in oasis cities along the silk roads; they were literate and often highly educated, and the Mongols needed that
Bubonic plague
disease brought to Europe from the Mongols during the Middle Ages. It killed 1/3 of the population and helps end Feudalism
Ottoman Turks
Muslims that took over Constantinople in 1453.
Istanbul
the largest city and former capital of Turkey
Sundiata
the founder of Mali empire, crushed his enemies and won control of the gold trade routes
Mansa Musa
Mali king brought Mali to its peak of power and wealth from 1312 the 1337; he was the most powerful king in west Africa
Ibn Battuta
Moroccan Muslim scholar, the most widely traveled individual of his time. He wrote a detailed account of his visits to Islamic lands from China to Spain and the western Sudan
Ali ibn Muhammad
rebel slave that organized 15,000 Zanj slaves in 869 to revolt from Abbasid; Zanj Revolt was crushed in 883
Griots
Professional oral historians who served as keepers of traditions and advisors to kings within the Mali Empire
Banana
elongated crescent-shaped yellow fruit with soft sweet flesh
stateless society
a society that is based on the authority of kinship groups rather than on a central government
Chiefdom
Form of political organization with rule by a hereditary leader who held power over a collection of villages and towns. Less powerful than kingdoms and empires, chiefdoms were based on gift giving and commercial links
Kingdom of Kongo
Basin of the Congo (Zaire) river, conglomeration of several village alliances, participated actively in trade networks, most centralized rule of the early Bantu kingdoms, royal currency: cowries, ruled 14th-17th century until undermined by Portuguese slave traders
Camels
Pack animals that made cross-Sahara caravans possible
Gao
Prosperous capital city of the kingdom of Songhai, had caravan trade routes.
Kingdom of Ghana
first of the great medieval trading empires of western Africa
Koumbi Saleh
Capital of Ghana which had 15,000 people with buildings of stone and more than a dozen mosques. Supported by a large number of qadi and Muslim scholars
Mali empire
Formed in 1240 when Sundiata took control of Ghana Empire. It controlled trade across Sahara, the South and the Niger River.
Swahili
the most widely spoken Bantu languages
Kilwa
one of many trading cities on the East African coast
Zimbabwe
a landlocked republic in south central Africa formerly called Rhodesia
Age grades
African social distinctions determined by when you were born. People belonging to a certain group had certain expectations. The groups established ties transcending family or clan loyalties.
Zanj revolt
led by Ali ibn-Muhamad; 15,000 slaves revolt for 14 years until it it ceased by Abbasids in 883
Diviners
individuals who by virtue of their innate abilities or extensive training had the power to mediate between humanity and supernatural beings
Axum
a town of northern Ethiopia. From the first to the eighth century A.D. it was the capital of an empire that controlled much of northern Ethiopia
Solomonic dynasty
A string of Ethiopian rulers who claimed descent from David in an attempt to add biblical authority to their rule.
Toltec
a people who invaded central Mexico and were ruled by a military class; had a capital city of Tula; influenced the Maya; introduced the working of gold and silver; spread the worship of their god Quetzalcoatl; destroyed in the AD 1100s
Mexica
founded Tenochtitlan; regarded themselves as chosen people in charge of keeping the world from destruction
Huitzilopochtli
Aztec tribal patron god; central figure of cult of human sacrifice and warfare; identified with old sun god
Quetzalcoatl
Aztec nature god, feathered serpent, his disappearance and promised return coincided with the arrival of Cortes
Pueblo
a member of any of about two dozen Native American peoples called pueblos by the Spanish because they live in villages built of adobe and rock
Iroquois
New York Indian tribe which
Inca
a member of the small group of Quechuan people living in the Cuzco valley in Peru who established hegemony over their neighbors to create the great Inca empire that lasted from about 1100 until the Spanish conquest in the early 1530s
Tenochtitlan
capital of the Aztec Empire, located on an island in Lake Texcoco; population was about 150,000 on the eve of Spanish conquest; Mexico City was constructed on its ruins.
Chinampas
Raised fields constructed along lake shores in Mesoamerica to increase agricultural yields
Quipu
knotted cords of various lengths and colors used by the Inca to keep financial records
Cahokia Mound
enormous earthen mound at Cahokia near East St. Louis, Illinois; built by Iroquois people for ceremonies or ritual performance
Marae
Polynesian ceremonial precinct and temple structure; often had several terraced floors
Ali’i nui
a chief or noble (hereditary) in Polynesian tribes
Marco Polo
Venetian traveler who explored Asia in the 13th century and served Kublai Khan (1254-1324)
Otto I
king of Germany and Holy Roman Emperor (912-973)
Pope John XII
crowned Otto Holy Roman Emperor in 962
Pope Gregory VII
fought lay investiture by issuing a decree forbidding high-ranking clerics from receiving their investiture from lay leaders
Henry IV
the first Lancastrian king of England from 1399 to 1413
Frederick Barbarossa
Holy Roman Emperor from 1152 to 1190
Hugh Capet
King of France elected in 987 and founding the Capetian dynasty (940-996)
Duke William of Normandy
invaded England in 1066, and introduced Norman principles of govt and land tenure to England
King Louis IX
King of France (1226-1270), helped consolidate Capetian hold on French monarchy
Eleanor of Aquitaine
Queen of France as the wife of Louis VII
St. Thomas Aquinas
scholastic theologian who blended Greek and Christian ideas
St. Dominic
founded orders of beggars and worked to persuade heretics to return to the Roman Catholic Church
St. Francis
founded orders of beggars and worked to persuade heretics to return to the Roman Catholic Church
Pope Innocent III
Pope called that for the crusade in 1198
Eric the Red
Norwegian adventurer who founded a colony on Greenland
Leif Erickson
viking explorer who reached North America around 1000, before Columbus
Robert Guiscard
led Norman adventures and counquered much of southern Italy against the Muslims
Roger Guiscard
brother of Robert Guiscard, founded a state for himself in Italy and named it Sicily
Pope Urban II
pope who called for the first crusade to reclaim Jerusalem from the Muslims
Peter the Hermit
french religious leader who led one of the bands of the first crusades
Saladin
(1137-1193) Powerful Muslim ruler during Third Crusade, defeated Christians at Hattin took Jerusalem
Holy Roman Empire
the lands ruled by Charlemagne
Investiture contest
A struggle between the Holy Roman Emperor and the Pope over who nominates clergymen. The Pope eventually won this struggle.
Capetian dynasty
a Frankish dynasty founded by Hugh Capet that ruled from 987 to 1328
Normans
a member of a Viking people who raided and then settled in the French province later known as Normandy, and who invaded England in 1066
Champagne fairs
vast marketplaces in France where merchants from around Europe would gather
Hanseatic League
a commercial and defensive confederation of free cities in northern Germany and surrounding areas
Three estates
The three social groups considered most powerful in Western countries; church, nobles, and urban leaders.
Chivalry
the medieval principles of knighthood
Troubadours
wandering poets; their love songs focused on cherishing and protecting women
Guilds
Association of merchants or artisans who cooperated to protect their economic interests
Cathedral schools
Bishops and Archbishops organized these types of schools and invited well known scholars to serve as master teachers. Established formal curricula based on writings in Latin. Famous ones at Paris, Chatres, and Bologna.
Universities
Degree-granting institutions of higher learning. Those that appeared in Latin West from about 1200 onward became the model of all modern universities.
Scholasticism
the system of philosophy dominant in medieval Europe
Sacraments
Sacred rituals of the Roman Catholic Church
Saints
followers of christ who lived lives of holiness on earth and now share in eternal life with God in heaven
Relics
valued holy objects from the past, esp. Saints
Pligrimages
journey to a religious site
Waldensians
people who led heretical movements against the church. They appealed to the biblical ideal of simplicity and separation from the world.
Cathars
a Christian religious sect in southern France in the 12th and 13th centuries
Vinland
Scandinavian name for the land explored near present day Newfoundland
Teutonic Knights
Order of knights devoted to Christianity and to fighting Muslims and pagans. Most active in Baltic region where they fought Slavs.
Reconquista
The effort by Christian leaders to drive the Muslims out of Spain, lasting from the 1100s until 1492.
Crusades
1096 Christian Europe aim to reclaim Jerusalem and aid they Byzantines; 1st success and the rest a failure; weakens the Byzantines; opens up trade
Ibn Battuta
Moroccan Muslim scholar, the most widely traveled individual of his time. He wrote a detailed account of his visits to Islamic lands from China to Spain and the western Sudan.
Marco Polo
Venetian traveler who explored Asia in the 13th century and served Kublai Khan (1254-1324)
John of Montecorvino
The most active of Roman Catholic missionaries in China
Hongwu
First Ming emperor in 1368; originally of peasant lineage; original name Zhu Yuanzhang; drove out Mongol influence; restored position of scholar-gentry
Zheng He
An imperial eunuch and Muslim, entrusted by the Ming emperor Yongle with a series of state voyages that took his gigantic ships through the Indian Ocean, from Southeast Asia to Africa. (pp. 355, 422)
Prince Henry
Portuguese prince who started a school for sailors and sponsored early voyages of exploration
Bartolomeu Dias
Portuguese explorer who in 1488 led the first expedition to sail around the southern tip of Africa from the Atlantic and sight the Indian Ocean.
Vasco de Gama
A Portugese sailor who was the first European to sail around southern Africa to the Indian Ocean
Fernando and Isabel
the king and queen of Spain, underwrote Columbus’s voyage
Christopher Columbus
Italian navigator who discovered the New World in the service of Spain while looking for a route to China (1451-1506)
Qadi
A Muslim judge who renders decisions according to the Shari’ah, the canon law of Islam.
Sufi
a Muslim who represents the mystical dimension of Islam
Melaka
The first major center of Islam in Southeast Asia, a port kingdom on the southwestern coast of the Malay Peninsula.
Little Ice Age
A century-long period of cool climate that began in the 1590s. Its ill effects on agriculture in northern Europe were notable. (p. 462)
Black Death
the epidemic form of bubonic plague experienced during the Middle Ages when it killed nearly half the people of western Europe
Ming dynasty
the imperial dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644
Reconquista
The effort by Christian leaders to drive the Muslims out of Spain, lasting from the 1100s until 1492.
Renaissance
the revival of learning and culture
Humanism
the cultural movement of the Renaissance

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