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AP World History Ming/Qing China, Tokugawa Japan

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Ming period of rule
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1368-1644
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Ming replaced
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The Mongols in 1368 (Yuan Dynasty)
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Ming replaced by
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The Qing dynasty in 1644 (Manchu)
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Ming economy
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Based on trade and agriculture until 1433 when China began a policy of isolationism. After this point, trade suffered.
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Ming government
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Efficient system based on Confucian ideals. Scholar-Administrators chosen by examination results. Emperor considered \”Son of Heaven\” and given power through a \”Mandate of Heaven\”.
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Ming \”known for\” (4)
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1) Sinocentric view 2) Isolationism 3) Art (porcelain especially) 4) Building the \”Forbidden City\” and Great Wall
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Ming factors of decline (4)
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1) Isolationism 2) Peasant uprisings (high taxes and famine) 3) Invasions from Manchuria 4) Corruption
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Qing period of rule
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1644-1911
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Qing replaced
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The Ming Dynasty
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Qing replaced by
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Foreign domination and eventually the Chinese Nationalists (Guomindang)
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Qing economy
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Based primarily on agriculture
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Qing government
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Adopted Ming examination system. Shared government positions with native Chinese while reserving the top positions for Manchus.
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Qing \”known for\” (4)
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1) Continued Sinocentric view 2) Continued isolationism 3) Military expansion of the empire 4) Social segregation of Manchu and Chinese culture
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Qing factors of decline (4)
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1) Isolationism 2) Rapid population growth and lack of food 3) Government corruption 4) British influence (opium, etc.)
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Tokugawa period of rule
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1603-1867
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Tokugawa replaced
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Ashikaga Shogunate
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Tokugawa replaced by
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Meiji Era
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Tokugawa economy
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Based on agriculture and internal trade. Became capitalist by 1700s
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Tokugawa government
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Unified under the absolute power of the Shogun. Daimyo (nobles) were responsible for government at the local level
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Tokugawa \”known for\” (6)
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1) Extreme isolationism and anti-foreign sentiments 2) Enforced loyalty of daimyo to shogun 3) Strict social hierarchy 4) Eventual development of capitalism and wealthy merchant class 5) Development of new forms of art (kabuki, woodblock prints) 6) New inferior roles for women
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Tokugawa factors of decline (2)
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1) Isolationism 2) Feudalism did not meet nation’s needs under capitalism
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Confucianism (3)
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1) Native to China (then spreads into Japan, Korea…) 2) Based on the teachings of Kung-fu-Tse born 551 CE 3) A philosophy of ethics turned into a religion after the death of Confucius
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Confucianism Beliefs (based on The Five K’ing) (5)
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1) Courage with good judgment 2) Education and self-criticism 3) Filial duty (emperor, father) 4) Good human relationships 5) Wise and just government
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NeoConfucianism (3)
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1) Emerged during Song Dynasty (960-1279 CE) 2) Rejected Buddhist faith but adapted their themes to Confucian values 3) Some elements of Taoism
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Vinegar Tasters- Confucius
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Sour expression (rules)
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Vinegar Tasters- Buddha
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Bitter expression (suffering)
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Vinegar Tasters- Lao Tse
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Happy expression (natural)
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Lack of Chinese Capitalist Development (5)
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1) Dominance of scholar-officials 2) Accepted level of corruption 3) Lack of ambition 4) Investing only in low risk land 5) No need for industrial capitalism to replace labor
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Japanese vs. European Feudal System
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1) Pope = Emperor 2) King = Shogun 3) Counts/Dukes = Daimyo 4) Lords = Greater Samurai 5) Knights = Samurai
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\”The Sword and the Chrysanthemum\”
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Sword = Shintoism and Chrysanthemum = Zen Buddhism; together they influence samurai culture
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Shintoism (3)
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1) Native to Japan 2) Nationalistic 3) Does not spread
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Shinto Virtues (3)
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1) Courage 2) (Filial) Loyalty 3) Cleanliness (5-7 pm reserved for bathing)
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Shinto Sins (2)
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1) Cowardess 2) Theft
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Zen Buddhism (3)
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1) Made so it can’t be explained 2) Unlike any other religion 3) Setori = enlightenment
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Zen Impacts on Samurai Culture (3)
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1) Meditation 2) Internal Searching 3) Self-control/Self-discipline
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Shinto Impacts on Samurai Culture (4)
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1) Courage/Cowardess 2) Loyalty 3) Cleanliness 4) Toughness (mental + physical)
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Confucianism Impacts on Samurai Culture (3)
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1) Duty 2) Filial loyalty 3) Education
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Confucianism Influences on Tokugawa Government (2)
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1) Social hierarchy 2) Obedience to ruler
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Buddhism Impacts on Japanese Commoners (2)
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1) Social behavior 2) Acceptance of status in society
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Portugal in Asian Trade (6)
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1) First to establish trading post empire 2) Did not conquer territory 3) Focused on controlling trade by forcing merchant ships to pay duties at >50 fortified trading sites 4) Intolerant Catholic missionaries 5) Afonso d’ Alboquerque 6) Controlled Asian trade for most of 1500s
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Netherlands/England in Asian Trade (6)
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1) Did not conquer territory 2) Controlled trade with less use of force than Portugal 3) No real attempts at religious conversion 4) Had faster, larger, cheaper-to-operate ships than Portugal 5) Known for very efficient commercial stock company 6) Dominated Asian trade from late 1500s to early 1700s
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Spain in Asian Trade (3)
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1) Conquered and colonized territory by late 1500s 2) Emphasis on conversion to Christianity 3) Philippines was a key link in Spain’s \”Manila Galleons\” trade
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Russia in Asian Trade (3)
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1) Focused on creating an expanding land empire into Asia and south to the Caspian Sea 2) Primary commodity was furs 3) Limited, unsuccessful attempts to convert indigenous peoples to Orthodox Christianity
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5 Seeds of Change
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1) Corn (N to O) animal feed = change human diets, population boom in Europe 2) Horse (O to N) transforms Native American lives 3) Disease (both) kills millions, exterminates civs. 4) Potato (N to O) \”The World’s Perfect Food\”, fed Europe’s poor 5) Sugar (O to N) main catalyst of African slavery
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Age of Exploration Technology (8)
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1) Magnetic compasses 2) Astrolabe 3) Lateen sails 4) New ships (caravel, carrack, galleons) 5) Improved guns/powder 6) Stern rudder 7) Printing press 8) Sailing strategies (volto do mar)
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New Spain Government Hierarchy
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1) King/Queen (Spain) 2) Council of the Indies (Spain) 3) Viceroys (Americas) 4) Local Officials (Americas)
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4 Viceroyalties of Spain
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1) Viceroyalty of New Spain (Mexico + Cali) 2) Viceroyalty of Granada (Colombia + Central Am.) 3) Viceroyalty of the Rio de La Plata (Central SA) 4) Viceroyalty of Peru (Peru + Chile)
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New Spain Social Class Ladder
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1) Peninsulares (Born on Iberian Peninsula; 100% Spanish blood) 2) Creoles (100% Spanish blood; Born in New Spain) 3) Mestizos (1/2 Spanish 1/2 NA blood; Born in New Spain) 4) Native Americans
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Encomienda
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Grant of labor rights for conquistadores in the New World
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Repartimiento
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The \”draft\” for encomiendas
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Hacienda
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Huge plantations
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Spanish Overseas Empire Explorers (4)
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1) Christopher Columbus 2) Hernan Cortes 3) Francisco Pizarro 4) Magellan
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Spanish Overseas Empire Locations
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Mexico, Western South America, Caribbean, Florida, Southwest USA, California, Central America, Philippines
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Spanish Overseas Empire Economic Activities (3)
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1) Gold/silver 2) Plantations (sugar) 3) Settlements
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English Overseas Empire Explorers (2)
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1) Cabot 2) Drake
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English Overseas Empire Locations
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East Coast USA, Newfoundland, East Canada, Belize, Coastal India
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English Overseas Empire Economic Activities (3)
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1) Settlements 2) Plantations (sugar, tobacco) 3) Fishing
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Portuguese Overseas Empire Explorers (3)
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1) Prince Harry 2) Vasco de Gama 3) Dias
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Portuguese Overseas Empire Locations
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Brazil, Azores, Coastal Western Africa, Macao
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Portuguese Overseas Empire Economic Activities (3)
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1) Asian trade 2) Plantations (sugar) 3) Brazilwood
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Dutch Overseas Empire Explorer
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Hudson
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Dutch Overseas Empire Locations
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NYC, northern NJ, Tip of Africa, Indonesia, Suriname, Guyana, Malaysia, Singapore
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Dutch Overseas Empire Economic Activities (2)
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1) Asian trade 2) \”Carrying trade\”
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French Overseas Empire Explorers (3)
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1) de Champlain 2) Marquette 3) La Salle
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French Overseas Empire Locations
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Mississippi River Basin, Great Lakes, Central Canada, French Guiana
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French Overseas Empire Economic Activities (2)
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1) Furs 2) Some plantations (sugar)
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Goals of Mercantilism (2)
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1) Stockpile precious metals 2) \”Positive Balance of Trade\” (export > import)
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Elements of Mercantilism (3)
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1) \”Mother Country\” will buy cheap, raw materials from colony 2) Restrictions on colonial manufacturing and trade forces colony to buy expensive \”finished goods\” from \”Mother Country\” 3) Colony was forced to use/pay for \”Mother Country\” ships to transport goods
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AE Changes in Influx of Gold/Silver to Europe (3)
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1) The Commercial Revolution 2) Greater disparity between social classes leads to unrest 3) Rapid inflation contributes to downfall of Spain
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AE Changes in Expansion of World Trade (2)
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1) Increased variety of goods 2) Increase in slave trade
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AE Changes in Mercantilism (2)
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1) Quest for colonies to improve European nation’s balance of trade and power 2) Colonial areas drained of resources
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Age of Exploration Brings Dramatic Increase in..
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Knowledge
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AE Changes in Conflict between/within Cultures (3)
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1) Era of European domination begins 2) Largest genocide in history (disease) 3) Slavery expands/Conflict in Africa
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AE Changes in Demographics (2)
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1) Vast migration of people 2) Population growth in Europe and Africa
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The Commercial Revolution (5)
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1) Shift in center of trade from Italy to Northern Europe, Spain, and Portugal 2) Increase in modern capitalism 3) Increased mass production/domestic system replaces guilds 4) Increased investments (joint stock companies) 5) Increased banking and insurance