AP world history chapter 9 study guide qestions

Differences of Byzantine to Western Europe
Byzantine had a robust and self-confident late Roman society and economy, while Western Europe could not reach political unity and suffered major economic decline. However, by 1200, it reversed. Byzantine’s military was weakening while Western Europe flourished.

Byzantine cultural achievements
Byzantine’s greatest architectural monument- Constantinople’s Hagia Sophia cathedral, religious art, and musical traditions. Cyril and Methodius preached in the local language to the Slavs of Moravia.

Centers of agriculture in Western Europe
Self-sufficient farming estates, or manors, became the centers of agricultural production. A decent manor contained fields, gardens, grazing lands, fish ponds, a mill, a church, workshops for making farm and household implements, and a village where the farmers dependent on the lord of the manor lived.

Women role in Western Europe and Byzantine Empire
Women could own land. A noblewoman ran her husband’s estate while he was away at war. Nonnoblewomen worked alongside her husband with agricultural jobs such as raking and stacking hay, shearing sheep, and picking vegetables. Artisan women spun, wove, and sewed clothing.

Revival of Western Europe and population increase
Population and agricultural production climbed, and a growing food surplus came into town markets, speeding the return of a money-based economy and providing support for a large population of craftspeople, construction workers and traders. Europe’s revival to population growth influenced by new technologies and to the appearance in Italy and Flanders, on the coast of the North Sea, of self -governing cities devoted primarily to seaborne trade.

Feudal, Fief
A fief was a grant of land given to reward military service, usually inherited as long as the service was continually provided.

Role of the Crusades
The cultural impact of the Crusades on Western Europe resulted in noble courts and bargaining cities consuming more goods from the east. Europeans eventually learned how to manufacture pasta, paper, refined sugar, and colored glass.

Nomadic groups and areas they took over and their influence
Vikings had settled in lands they seized in Normandy and organized ambitious expeditions. They could make versatile ships able to maneuver storms.

Origins of Kievan Russia
Located between the Black/Caspian seas and the Baltic/White seas. Economics, politics, and religion all were connected. Political power from trade. Helped spread Christianity

Charlemagne: First emporer in Western Europe
Manors: Self-sufficient farming estates
Fief: Land given to reward military service
Vassals: Noble followers of the king
Papacy: Office of the pope
Pilgrimage: A journey to a place considered sacred for religious purposes.

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