AP World History Chapter 4 Vocab

Flashcard maker : Kelly Fisher
Polis
City-state form of government used in Greece 800-400BCE
Socrates
Late 5th cBCE Athenian philosopher; Urged rational reflection of moral decisions; Condemned to death for corrupting minds of Athenian young
Plato
Socrates’ greatest pupil; Suggested humans could approach understanding of perfect forms of truth, good, and beauty that he thought underlay nature
Aristotle
384 – 322 BCE, Greek philosopher; Alexander the Great’s teacher; Knowledge based on observation of phenomena in material world
Sophocles
494-406 BCE, Greek writer of tragedy Oedipus Rex
Iliad and Odyssey
Homer’s Greek epic poems that defined god and human nature that shaped Greek myths
Pythagoras
Hellenistic mathematician who developed many basic geometric theories which are still used today
Galen
Hellenistic physician/writer who wrote many medical treaties that formed the basis for modern political practices
Euclid
Hellenistic mathematician who wrote what was the world’s most widely used geometry compendium for a long time
Ptolemy
Hellenistic astronomer who produced an elaborate theory of the sun’s motion around the Earth
Sappho
One of the greatest ancient Greek poets; Her poetry developed the complexities of inner workings of humans and love
Battle of Marathon
490 BCE, Persians who invaded Greece were defeated on the Plain of Marathon by an Athenian army led by the general Militades
King Xerxes
486-465 BCE, Persian king who invaded Greece in retribution for earlier Persian defeats; Forces defeated by the Greeks in the battles of Salamis and Platea
Themistocles
Athenian leader who advocated for Athenian navy during the Persian Wars, which led to defeat of large Persian fleet at battle of Salamis by the Athenian army
Battle of Thermopylae
480 BCE, Spartan King Leonidas and his army of 300 Spartans and 700 Thespians refused to surrender to the numerically superior Persian army at the Pass of Thermopylae; Annihilated, but allowed other Greek armies to prepare for Persian Invasion
Pericles
Athenian political leader during 5th century BCE; Guided development of Athenian Empire; Died during early Peloponnesian War
Peloponnesian Wars
431-404 BCE wars between Athens and Sparta for dominance in southern Greece; Spartan victory, but no political unification of Greece
Cyrus the Great
By 550BCE, established huge Persian Empire
Zoroastrianism
Animist religion that saw material existence as battle between forces of good and evil; Stressed importance of moral choice; Righteous lived on after death in \”House of Song\”; Chief religion of Persian Empire
Philip II of Macedon
Ruled from 359-336 BCE; Founder of centralized kingdom; Later conquered rest of Greece, which was subjected to Macedonian authority
Alexander the Great
Philip II’s successor; Successfully conquered Persian Empire prior to death in 323 BCE; Tried to combine Greek and Persian culture
Hellenistic Period
Culture associated with spread of Greek influence because of Macedonian conquests; Seen as combination of Greek culture with eastern political forms
Alexandria, Egypt
Founded and named for Alexander the Great; Site of ancient Mediterranean’s greatest library; Center of literary studies
Julius Caesar
Roman general, conquered Gaul; Brought army back to Rome and overthrew republic; Assassinated in 44 BCE by conservative senators
Diocletian
284-305CE, Roman emperor who improved admin and tax collection
Constantine
312-337CE Roman emperor; Established second capital at Constantinople; Tried to use Christianity to unite empire
Cicero
Conservative Roman senator, Stoic philosopher; Killed in reaction to assassination of Julius Caesar
Roman Republic
510-47 BCE, Rome had aristocratic Senate, magistrate panel, and popular assemblies
Senate
Assembly of Roman aristocrats; Advised on policy within the republic; Early element of Roman constitution
Consuls
2 chief executives or magistrates of Roman Republic; Elected by an annual assembly dominated by aristocracy
Twelve Tables
450 BCE, Roman law code developed in response to democracy of Roman republic
Carthage
Originally Phoenician colony in northern Africa; Became major port and commercial power in the western Mediterranean; Won by Rome after 3 Punic Wars
Punic Wars
Fought between Rome and Carthage to dominate western Mediterranean; Rome won after 3 separate conflicts
Hannibal
Great Carthaginian general during Second Punic War; Successfully invaded Italy but failed to conquer Rome; Finally defeated at Battle of Zama
Augustus Caesar
Name given to Octavian after his defeat of Mark Anthony and Cleopatra; First Roman emperor
Vergil
One of greatest Roman poets during \”Golden Age\” of Latin literature; Author of the Aeneid
Olympic games
Pan-Hellenic ritual observed by all Greek city-states; Involved athletic competitions and ritual celebrations
Tyranny
Gov’t based on rule of absolute ruler
Aristocracy
Form of government where the rich rule over everyone
Direct democracy
People participate directly in assemblies that make laws and select leaders rather than electing representatives
Stoics
Hellenistic group of philosophers; Emphasized inner moral independence cultivated by strict discipline of body and personal bravery
Doric
Ionic
Corinthian
Herodotus
Greek historian called the \”Father of History\” who wrote Persian Wars account in \”Histories\”

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