AP World History Chapter 23 Vocabulary

Flashcard maker : Claire Scott
Albert Einstein
physicist born in Germany who formulated the special theory of relativity and the general theory of relativity
American Civil War
Conflict between the Northern US states (Union) and the Southern states that seceded and formed the Confederacy 1861-65. It was important in the development of a separate Canadian identity.
Belgian Revolution
1830; sparked by Paris revolts; Congress of Vienna had united Netherlands and Holland; Belgium became independent state after demand by students and workers
Charles Darwin
English naturalist. He studied the plants and animals of South America and the Pacific islands, and in his book On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection (1859) set forth his theory of evolution. (p. 715)
Charles Dickens
English writer whose novels depicted and criticized social injustice (1812-1870)
Conservatives
people who generally favor limited government and are cautious about change
Declaration of Independence
the document recording the proclamation of the second Continental Congress (4 July 1776) asserting the independence of the colonies from Great Britain
Factory system
a method of production that brought many workers and machines together into one building
French Revolution
The revolution that began in 1789, overthrew the absolute monarchy of the Bourbons and the system of aristocratic privileges, and ended with Napoleon’s overthrow of the Directory and seizure of power in 1799.
Imperialism
A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries politically, socially, and economically.
Marquis de Condorcet
Transformed the enlightenment belief in gradual, hard won progress into fanciful Utopianism. Hypothesized and tracked nine stages of human progress that had already occurred and predicted the tenth stage would bring perfection
Population Revolution
Huge growth in population in Western Europe beginning about 1730; prelude to Industrial Revolution; population of France increased 50 percent, England and Prussia 100 percent.
Radicals
Those who favor extreme change
Reign of Terror
the historic period (1793-94) during the French Revolution when thousands were executed
Revisionism
The socialist idea that we should embrace socialism in a gradual advance, with no bloody war
James Watt
Scottish engineer and inventor whose improvements in the steam engine led to its wide use in industry (1736-1819)
Henry James
writer who was born in the United States but lived in England (1843-1916)
Triple Entente
An alliance between Great Britain, France and Russia in the years before WWI.
Karl Marx
German philosopher, economist, and revolutionary. With the help and support of Friedrich Engels he wrote The Communist Manifesto (1848) and Das Kapital (1867-1894). These works explain historical development in terms of the interaction of contradictory economic forces, form the basis of all communist theory, and have had a profound influence on the social sciences.
Reform Bill of 1832
Legislation passed in Great Britain that extended the vote to most members of the middle class; failed to produce democracy in Britain.
Otto von Bismarck
German statesman under whose leadership Germany was united (1815-1898)
Romanticsm
the prime style (1814-1840) about emotions, escaping, being free, involves the subconscious, exoticism, travel (new culture), literature subject matter, reportage, sensationalized, dramatized
Paul Cezanne
French post-impressionist painter who influenced modern art (especially cubism) by stressing the structural components latent in nature (1839-1906)
Emmeline Pankhurst
Leads movement to win women’s vote (suffrage) through militant (radical, sometimes violent) means
Oath of the Tennis Court
National Assembly is locked out of meeting place for estates-general and meets in tennis court where they pledged to not leave until a constitution was made. Starts the first phase of the revolution.
Luddites
These were the angry old cottage industry workers who lost their jobs and costumers to machines and as a result, they began to secretly destroy the machines
Louis XVI
– King of France (1774-1792). In 1789 he summoned the Estates-General, but he did not grant the reforms that were demanded and revolution followed. Louis and his queen, Marie Antoinette, were executed in 1793.
Revolution of 1905
result of discontent from Russian factory workers and peasants as well as an emerging nationalist sentiment among the empires minorities.
Age of Revolution
Period of politcal upheaval beginning roughly with the American Revolution in 1775 and continuing through the French Revolution of 1789 and other movements for change up to 1848
protoindustrialization
preliminary shift away from an agricultural economy; workers became full- or part-time producers who worked at home in a capitalist system in which materials, work, orders, and sales depended on urban merchants; prelude to the Industrial revolution
nationalism
love of country and willingness to sacrifice for it
Maximilien Robespierre
\”The incorruptable;\” the leader of the bloodiest portion of the French Revolution. He set out to build a republic of virtue.
feminist movement
the movement aimed at equal rights for women
demographic transition
Change in a population from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates
Declaration of Rights of the Man and the Citizen
This was the new constitution that the National Assembly wrote that gave all citizens free expression of thoughts and opinions and guaranteed equality before the law
Industrial Revolution
the transformation from an agricultural to an industrial nation
Mass leisure culture
An aspect of the later Industrial Revolution; decreased time at work and offered opportunities for new forms of leisure time, such as vacation trips and team sports.
liberals
people who generally favor government action and view change as progress
Napoleon Bonaparte
French general who became emperor of the French (1769-1821)
Triple Alliance
Alliance between Germany, Italy, Austria Hungry
Monroe Doctrine
an American foreign policy opposing interference in the Western hemisphere from outside powers
Social Fabian society
Fabian socialists were in favor of an imperialist foreign policy as a conduit for internationalist reform. The \”Fabians\” were named after Fabius, the famous Roman general which opposed Hannibal
Bastille
The political prison and armory stormed on July 14, 1789, by Partisian city workers alarmed by the king’s concentration of troops at Versailles
Chartist movement
In 19th century Britain where members of the working class demanded reforms in Parliament and in elections, including suffrage for all MEN.
Guillotine
instrument of execution that consists of a weighted blade between two vertical poles
James McNeill Whistler
(1834-1903) A member of the realist movement, although his works were often moody and eccentric. Best known for his Arrangement in Black and Grey, No.1, also known asWhistler’s Mother.
Stamp Act of 1765
Was issued in order to raise revenues to support the new British military force. Mandated the use of stamped paper certifying the payment of taxes. Colonist were angrily aroused and felt that this act was jeopardizing the basic right of the colonists as Englishmen.
American Revolution
the revolution of the American colonies against Great Britain
Greek Revolution
Rebellion in Greece against the Ottoman Empire in 1820; key step in gradually dismantling the Ottoman Empire in the Balkans.
Sigmund Freud
Austrian neurologist who originated psychoanalysis (1856-1939)
Louisiana Purchase
territory in western United States purchased from France in 1803 for $15 million

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