ap world history chapter 1-14

Flashcard maker : Jose Escobar
Hunting Gathering
the use of simple tools to hunt animals and gather vegetation for food
Domesticated Animals
Started around 8000 B.C.E., dogs, horses, wheat, barley, etc.
Sedentary
sitting
Nomadic
wandering, moving about from place to place
Pastoral
of or relating to a pastor
Neolithic
New Stone age
Deity
a god or goddess
Pantheon
a temple to all the gods
Pagan
not acknowledging the God of Christianity and Judaism and Islam
Caste System
a social structure in which classes are determined by heredity
Preist
a person who performs religous cerimonies
Nun
a female who dedicates her life to God and avoids the things of the world
Monotheism
belief in a single God
Celibacy
the state of being unmarried that priests and other religious choose in order to dedicate their lives totally to Jesus Christ and God’s People
Monasticism
The practice of living the life of a monk
Afterlife
life after death
Reincarnation
a second or new birth
Missionaries
people who work to spread their religious beliefs
Pilgrims
English Puritans who founded Plymouth colony in 1620
Filial
relating to or characteristic of a child
Kinship groups
groups of people related by blood or marriage
conversion
a spiritual enlightenment causing a person to lead a new life
priesthood
the condition or office of a priest
sacred texts
texts that a religion believes to be sacred or of central importance.
imperial
relating to or associated with an empire
feudal
of or relating to or characteristic of feudalism
the state
A specific region within the nation
empire
a group of countries under a single authority
ideology
an orientation that characterizes the thinking of a group or nation
bureaucracy
system of managing government through departments run by appointed officials
civil service
the group of people whose job it is to carry out the work of the government
social hierarchy
The division of society by rank or class
stratification
the placing of seeds in damp sand or sawdust or peat moss in ordere to preserve them or promote germination
inequality
lack of equality
patriarchy
a form of social organization in which a male is the family head and title is traced through the male line
slavery
the practice of owning slaves
urban
relating to or concerned with a city or densely populated area
tax revenue
government income due to taxation
nobility
the quality of being exalted in character or ideals or conduct
elites
A group or class of persons or a member of such a group or class, enjoying superior intellectual, social, or economic status.
autonomy
immunity from arbitrary exercise of authority, otherwise known as political independence
citizen
a native or naturalized member of a state or other political community
trade goods
articles of commerce
Role of nomads in trade
nomads spread ideas from far away lands and traded new technology
Technology
tools and skills people use to meet their basic needs
Textiles
fabrics that are woven or knitted; material for clothing
Schism
division of a group into opposing factions, a separation between the two branches of Christianity
doctrinal differences
The use of documents to compare and contrast two religions.
epidemic disease
any infectious disease that develops and spreads rapidly to many people
guilds
Association of merchants or artisans who cooperated to protect their economic interests
tax-farming
selling the right to collect taxes to private individuals called tax farmers
city-states
a city and its surrounding farmlands, with its own leaders and government
soverignty
Ultimate governing authority, supreme and absolute power within own territory and can decide own foreign and domestic policies
mercenaries
a soldier who fights for any country or group that will pay him
diasporas
the migration of religious or ethnic groups to foreign lands despite their continued affiliation with the land and customs of their origin
syncretism
a blending of two or more religious traditions
tribute system
Conquered people give goods or money to the capital city as a tax
infidel
one who does not accept a particular faith
chartered cities
A charter city is a city in which the governing system is defined by the city’s own charter document rather than by state, provincial, regional or national laws.
usury
the act of lending money at an exorbitant rate of interest
sacrament
something considered to have sacred significance
caravel
A small, highly maneuverable three-masted ship used by the Portuguese and Spanish in the exploration of the Atlantic.
tariffs
Taxes on imports or exports
conquistadors
Spanish soldiers and explorers who led military expeditions in the Americas and captured land for Spain
absolutism
the principle of complete and unrestricted power in government
joint-stock companies
an association of individuals in a business enterprise with transferable shares of stock, much like a corporation except that stockholders are liable for the debts of the business
trade diaspora
networks of interconnected commercial communities living and working major trade cities through out Africa, Europe and Asia.
excommunication
the act of banishing a member of the Church from the communion of believers and the privileges of the Church
slave trade
The business of capturing, transporting, and selling people as slaves
manumission
the formal act of freeing from slavery
renaissance
the period of European history at the close of the Middle Ages and the rise of the modern world
protestant
the Protestant churches and denominations collectively
coerced labor system
Forced Labor
mercantilism
an economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought
revolution
the overthrow of a government by those who are governed
imperialism
any instance of aggressive extension of authority
sepoys
Indian troops who served in the British army
monopoly
exclusive control or possession of something
modernization
making modern in appearance or behavior
political reforms
a reform in the political structure of a country/state/entity
capitulations
Agreements with European powers that gave European bankers and merchants unfair advantages in the Empire
humanitarian values
values that promote better conditions for people throughout the world.
effective occupation
a principle in international law that territory and other property remains with its possessor at the end of a conflict, unless provided for by treaty
concessions in colonies
Colonies yielding the argument against them. conceding for the imperialists
colonialism
Attempt by one country to establish settlements and to impose its political, economic, and cultural principles in another territory.
cash crops
crops, such as tobacco, sugar, and cotton, raised in large quantities in order to be sold for profit
business cycle
recurring fluctuations in economic activity consisting of recession and recovery and growth and decline
extraterritoriality
Right of foreigners to be protected by the laws of their own nation.
Treaties
formal agreements between nations
Abolition
the movement to end slavery
industrialization
the development of industry on an extensive scale
social Darwinism
The application of ideas about evolution and \”survival of the fittest\” to human societies – particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
sanitation systems
a series of pipes to take dirty water away from houses and businesses
nation state
A country who’s population share a common identity.
liberalism
an economic theory advocating free competition and a self-regulating market and the gold standard
middle class
the social class between the lower and upper classes
Victorian
of or relating to Queen Victoria of Great Britain or to the age in which she ruled
Indentured Servants
colonists who received free passage to North America in exchange for working without pay for a certain number of years
Laissez-faire capitalism
This was the style of capitalism in which the government had no interference with the economy
Socialism
a political theory advocating state ownership of industry
Labor union
an organization of employees formed to bargain with the employer
Marxism
the economic and political theories of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels that hold that human actions and institutions are economically determined and that class struggle is needed to create historical change and that capitalism will untimately be superseded
Free-trade imperialism
Economic dominance of a weaker country by a more powerful one, while maintaining the legal independence of the weaker state. In the late nineteenth century, free-trade imperialism characterized the relations between the Latin American republics.
suffrage
a legal right guaranteed by the 15th amendment to the US constitution
natural rights
the idea that all humans are born with rights, which include the right to life, liberty, and property
consumerism
a movement advocating greater protection of the interests of consumers
fascism
a political system headed by a dictator that calls for extreme nationalism and racism and no tolerance of opposition
five-year plans
Plans that Joseph Stalin introduced to industrialize the Soviet Union rapidly, beginning in 1928. They set goals for the output of steel, electricity, machinery, and most other products and were enforced by the police powers of the state.
import-substitution
a government policy that uses trade restrictions and subsidies to encourage domestic production of manufactured goods
mandate system
Allocation of former German colonies and Ottoman possessions to the victorious powers after World War I, to be administered under League of Nations supervision.
partition
the act of dividing or partitioning
sub-urbanization
The process of population movement from within towns and cities to the rural-urban fringe.
Non-aligned nations
Developing countries that announced their neutrality in the Cold War.
Proxy Wars
During the Cold War, local or regional wars in which the superpowers armed, trained, and financed the combatants.
Genocide
systematic killing of a racial or cultural group

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