AP World History Ch. 13,14,15

Flashcard maker : Sam Arent
Balkan Region
peninsula that incl. Greece, Albania, Bosnia, Greece, Serbia/Croatia, controlled by Ottoman Empire (Austrian influence), Russia tries to expand in here
Body of Civil Law
Justinian’s codification of Roman law; revised Roman law as coherent basis for political and economic life
Byzantine Empire
a continuation of the Roman Empire in the Middle East after its division in 395
Caesaropapism
the doctrine that the state is supreme over the church in ecclesiastical matters
Eastern Orthodox Church
one of the three major branches of christianity, the eastern orthodox church, together with the roman catholic church, a second of the three major branches of christianity, arose out of the roman empire by empereor diocletian into four governemtal regions: two western regions centered in rome and two eastern regions centered in constantinople
Greek Fire
Byzantine weapon consisting of mixture of chemicals (petroleum, quicklime, sulfur) that ignited when exposed to water; utilized to drive back Arab fleets that attacked Constantinople
Hagia Sophia
Most famous example of Byzantine architecture, it was built under Justinian I and is considered one of the most perfect buildings in the world.
Iconoclasm
a challenge to or overturning of traditional beliefs, customs, and values, any movement against the religious use of images
Justinian
Byzantine emperor in the 6th century A.D. who reconquered much of the territory previously ruler by Rome, initiated an ambitious building program , including Hagia Sofia, as well as a new legal code
Justinian’s Code
Laws of the byzantine empire based the twelve tables of Roman law, became a basis for laws in many European nations
Kiev Rus
Kiev was the major trading hub between the Vikings in the north and the Byzantium in the south and later became a city. Kievan Rus was the old name for Russia.
Monasticism
a way of life in which men and women withdraw from the rest of the world in order to devote themselves to their faith
Mosaic
art consisting of a design made of small pieces of colored stone or glass
Prince Vladimir
Ruler of Kiev who converts to eastern orthodox christianity rather than roman catholic; influenced Russians to convert to Christianity.
Schism
a formal split within a religious organization; any division or separation of a group or organization into hostile factions
Theme System
Found in Byzantium. Strengthened the free peasantry by making land available to those who performed military service.
Theodora
The wife of Justinian, she helped to improve the status of women in the Byzantinian Empire and encouraged her husband to stay in Constntinople and fight the Nike Revolt.
Abbasid Dynasty
Muslim dynasty after Ummayd, a dynasty that lasted about two centuries that had about 150 years of Persia conquer and was created by Mohammad’s youngest uncle’s sons
Al-Andulus
Muslim Spain, whose Muslim rulers, descended from that Umayyad prince who escaped the Abbasids. Its capital is Corboda
Abu Bakr
Companion of 1st muslim leader after Muhammad. Regarded by Sunni’s as the 1st caliph and rightful succesor. The Shi’ah regard him as a traitor of Muhammad. Known as best interpretter of dreams following Muhammad’s death.
Allah
Muslim name for the one and only God
Arabs
traveling people who lived throughout North Africa and Southwest Asia/Middle East, first followers of Islam
Arabic Numerals
A written number system created during the Gupta golden age in India, then adopted by the Islamic Empire before spreading further. Used throughout western civilization today.
Arabic Languages
there are 2 different kinds of Arabic. Classic Arabic is the language of the Qur’an and is used in books and newspapers.
Modern Arabic is used on television and radio, and in conversations between Arabic speakers.
Astrolabe
an instrument used by sailors to determine their location by observing the position of the stars and planets
Baghdad
Capital city of Iraq. As heart of the Arab Empire, it was second only to Constantinople in terms of size and grandeur in 1000 C.E.
Bedouin Peoples
Nomadic pastoralists of the Arabian peninsula; culture based on camel and goat nomadism; early converts to Islam.
Berbers
a member of a North African, primarily Muslim people living in settled or nomadic tribes from Morocco to Egypt
Caliph
the civil and religious leader of a Muslim state considered to be a representative of Allah on earth
Calihate
the era of Islam’s ascendancy from the death of Mohammed until the 13th century
Caravanserais
inns offering lodging for caravan merchants as well as food, water, and care for their animals
Cordoba
capital of Muslim Spain, an economic center, hundreds of workshops, culture and learning flourished there
Dar al-Islam
an Arabic term that means the \”house of Islam\” and that refers to lands under Islamic rule
Diasporic Communities
immigrants who have relocated from their ancestral homelands and retain their distinct cultural identities as ethnic minority groups in their new host countries
Dhimmis
A person of a non-Muslim religion whose right to practice that religion is protected within an Islamic society
Five Pillars
Basic rules of Islam. 1. Profession of faith 2. Pray five times a day 3. Give alms (give money) 4. Ramadan fast 5. Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca).
Hajj
the fifth pillar of Islam is a pilgrimage to Mecca during the month of Dhu al-Qadah
Iberian Penninsula
the penninsula that is Spain and France, Southwestern tip of Europe: present location of Spain and Portugal
Islam
the monotheistic religion of Muslims founded in Arabia in the 7th century and based on the teachings of Muhammad as laid down in the Koran
Jihad
a holy struggle or striving by a Muslim for a moral or spiritual or political goal
Jizya
tax paid by Christians and Jews who lived in Muslim communities to allow them to continue to practice their own religion
Ka’ba
(\”cube\”) a pre-islamic cubed building in mecca believed by muslims to have been built by Abraham. It is the center of the Muslim Pilgrimage
Mecca
City in western Arabia; birthplace of the Prophet Muhammad, and ritual center of the Islamic religion.
Minaret
A distinctive feature of mosque architecture, a tower from which the faithful are called to worship
Mosque
(Islam) a Muslim place of worship
Muhammad
Founder of Islam, considered the greatest prophet in Islam
Muslim
A follower of Islam, means \”one who has submitted\”
Quran (Koran)
The name for the holy book of Islam; meaning \”recital\”
Ramadan
(Islam) a fast (held from sunrise to sunset) that is carried out during the Islamic month of Ramadan
Saak
A letter that a merchant could take from one city to another. It proves that the merchant could buy things and it was much lighter than a heavy metal box
Seal of the prophets
Muhammad’s name for himself, signifying that he was the final prophet of Allah.
Sharia
the code of law derived from the Koran and from the teachings and example of Mohammed
Shia
the branch of Islam whose members acknowledge Ali and his descendants as the rightful successors of Muhammad
Sufis
a mystical Muslim group that believed they could draw closer to God through prayer, fasting, and a simple life
Sultan
the ruler of a Muslim country (especially of the former Ottoman Empire)
Sugarcane
tall tropical southeast Asian grass having stout fibrous jointed stalksd
Sunni
A branch of Islam whose members acknowledge the first four caliphs as the rightful successors of Muhammad
The Thousand and One Nights
A group of tales narrated by a fictional princess, many are set in baghdad, include romances, fables, adventures, best known for Aladdin and the magic lamp
Umayyad Dynasty
established by Muawiya, moved capital from Medina to Damascus, that action split Islam (Shi’ites & Sunnites)
Umma
the Muslim community or people, considered to extend from Mauritania to Pakistan
Bushido
traditional code of the Japanese samurai which stressed courage and loyalty and self-discipline and simple living
Chan Buddhism
Known as Zen in Japan; stressed meditation and appreciation of natural and artistic beauty; popular with members of elite Chinese society
Champa Rice
Quick-maturing rice that can allow two harvests in one growing season. Originally introduced into Champa from India, it was later sent to China as a tribute gift by the Champa state (as part of the tributary system.)
Chang-an
City in the Wei Valley in eastern China. It became the capital of the Zhou kingdom and the Qin and early Han Empires. Its main features were imitated in the cities and towns that sprang up throughout the Han Empire.
Equal Field System
This Chinese system allotted land to individuals and their families according to the land’s fertility and the recipients’ needs.
Fast Ripening Rice
acquired by Chinese through trade with Vietnam. ripens twice a year, which allowed farmers to harvest more crops. allowed China’s population to expand
Flying Cash
Enabled merchants to deposit good or cash at one location and draw the equivalent in cash or merchandise elsewhere in China.
Foot Binding
practice in Chinese society to mutilate women’s feet in order to make them smaller; produced pain and restricted women’s movement; made it easier to confine women to the household
Grand Canal
The 1,100-mile (1,700-kilometer) waterway linking the Yellow and the Yangzi Rivers. It was begun in the Han period and completed during the Sui Empire. (p. 277)
Hangzhou
Capital of later Song dynasty; located near East China Sea; permitted overseas trading; population exceeded 1 million.
Heian Japan
(794-1185 C.E.) local rulers on the island of Honshu recognized the emperor as Japan’s supreme political authority, but, unlike China, Japanese emperors rarely ruled; they only acted as figure heads. Fujiwara family had the power. Two sections of rule: imperial house and ruling parties and factions. Culture of Heian was influenced by Chinese traditions.
Magnetic Compass
compass based on an indicator (as a magnetic needle) that points to the magnetic north
Mahayana Buddhism
one of two great schools of Buddhist doctrine emphasizing a common search for universal salvation especially through faith alone
Meritocracy
the belief that rulers should be chosen for their superior abilities and not because of their wealth or birth
Moveable Type
Individual characters made of wood or metal that can be arranged to create a job for printing and then used over again
Nara Japan
Japanese period (710-794) centered around city of Nara, that was the highest point of Chinese influence.
Neo-Confucianism
term that describes the resurgence of Confucianism and the influence of Confucian scholars during the T’ang Dynasty; a unification of Daoist or Buddhist metaphysics with Confucian pragmatism
Paper-Money
legal currency issued on paper; it developed in China as a convenient alternative to metal coins
Porcelain
ceramic ware made of a more or less translucent ceramic
Samurai
feudal Japanese military aristocracy
Silla Kingdom
Independent Korean kingdom in the southeast part of the peninsulal defeated Koguryo with the help of their chinese Tang allies; sumbitted as a vassal of the Tang emperor and agreed to tribute payment; united Korea by 668.
Shinto
the ancient indigenous religion of Japan lacking formal dogma
Song
the imperial dynasty of China from 960 to 1279
Song Economic Revolution
A major economic quickening that played off PUMPER and the development of infrastructure to allow for an increasing amount of trade and manufacturing.
Sui Dynasty
The short dynasty between the Han and the Tang; built the Grand Canal, strengthened the government, and introduced Buddhism to China
Tang
the imperial dynasty of China from 618 to 907
The Tale of Genji
Written by Lady Murasaki; first novel in any languange; relates life history of prominent and amorous son of the Japanese emperor’s son; evidence for mannered style of the Japanese society.
Tributary
a branch that flows into the main stream
Uighur
the Turkic language spoken by approximately 7,000,000 Uighur people in extreme northwestern China
Vietnam
Southeastern Asian country, called Nam Viet, successfully rebelled from China in 939. fell into chaos, stabilized after a series of long dynasties
Xuanzang
712, Empress Wu’s grandson, became emperor of China, welcomed artisans to his court, Tang arts flourished: translucent pottery – \”china\”

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