AP World History – Bentley-Unit One

Flashcard maker : Christine Brunetti
irrigation systems
Replacement or supplementation of rainfall with water from another source in order to grow crops
Ice Age
Any period of time during which glaciers covered a large part of the earth’s surface
ethnocentrism
Belief in the superiority of one’s own ethnic group
nomadic
(of groups of people) tending to travel and change settlements frequently
cultural diffusion
The spread of cultural elements from one society to another
Homo sapiens
the only surviving hominid
Paleolithic
second part of the Stone Age beginning about 750,00 to 500,000 years BC and lasting until the end of the last ice age about 8,500 years BC
Neolithic Revolution
the shift from hunting of animals and gathering of food to the keeping of animals and the growing of food on a regular basis around 8,000 BC
Jericho
a village in Jordan near the north end of the Dead Sea
Catal Huyuk
One of first true cities in history, created in the Neolithic Era in 6500 to 5500 BC, from which were created agriculture, trading, temples, housing, and religions
Metallurgy
the science or art of metals. It includes the study of their properties and structure, the separation and refining of metals from their ores, the production of alloys, and the shaping and treatment of metals by heat and rolling.
Lucy
A forty percent complete skeleton discovery of an Australopithecus afarensis, or a species within the category of hominid. She was rediscovered on November 24, 1974 in Hadar, Ethiopia.
Gilgamesh
a legendary Sumerian king who was the hero of an epic collection of mythic stories
Hammurabi
Amorite ruler of Babylon (r. 1792-1750 B.C.E.). He conquered many city-states in southern and northern Mesopotamia and is best known for a code of laws, inscribed on a black stone pillar, illustrating the principles to be used in legal cases. (p. 34)
Nebuchadnezzar
A Babylonian king who conquered Jerusalem,and built the Hanging Gardens of Babylon
Mesopotamia
first civilization located between the Tigris & Eurphrates Rivers in present day Iraq; term means \”land between the rivers;\” Sumerian culture
fertile crescent
Found along the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, this was the first early river civilization. The cities in this area were governed by city-states and used irrigation to produced their corps.
ziggurat
a rectangular tiered temple or terraced mound erected by the ancient Assyrians and Babylonians
Patriarchy
a form of social organization in which a male is the family head and title is traced through the male line
Cuneiform
an ancient wedge-shaped script used in Mesopotamia and Persia
Palestine
an ancient country is southwestern Asia on the east coast of the Mediterranean
Torah
(Judaism) the scroll of parchment on which the first five books of the Hebrew Scripture is written
Bible
The book that contains the writings or scriptures that Christians recognize as the written word of God.
Phoenicians
Sailing and trading people who had many colonies on the Mediterranean coast
Sargon of Akkad
an ancient Mesopotamian ruler who reigned approximately 2334-2279 BC, and was one of the earliest of the world’s great empire builders, conquering all of southern Mesopotamia as well as parts of Syria, Anatolia, and Elam (western Iran). He established the region’s first Semitic dynasty and was considered the founder of the Mesopotamian military tradition.
Hebrews
the ethnic group claiming descent from Abraham and Isaac (especially from Isaac’s son Jacob)
Abraham
Founder of Judaism who, according to the Bible, led his family from Ur to Canaan in obedience to God’s command.
Menes
king of upper egypt united the two kingdoms of upper and lower egypt
Hatshepsut
Queen of Egypt (1473-1458 B.C.E.). Dispatched a naval expedition down the Red Sea to Punt (possibly Somalia), the faraway source of myrrh. There is evidence of opposition to a woman as ruler, and after her death her name was frequently expunged. (p.66)
Nile River
the world’s longest river (4180 miles)
Nubia
an ancient region of northeastern Africa (southern Egypt and northern Sudan) on the Nile
Pharaoh
a king of ancient Egypt, considered a god as well as a political and military leader
Hieroglyphs
pictures, characters, or symbols standing for words, ideas, or sounds; ancient Egyptians used instead of an alphabet like ours
Bantu
a family of languages widely spoken in the southern half of the African continent
Indra
chief deity of the Aryans; depicted as a colossal, hard-drinking warrior God of thunder and strength
Aryans
Indo-European speaking nomads who entered India from the Central Asian steppes between 1500 and 1000 BC and greatly affected Indian society.
Dravidians
one of the main groups of people in India; probably descended from the Indus River culture that flourished at the dawn of Indian civilization over 4,000 yrs. ago
Harappan
Civilization that developed along the Indus River (Present Day Pakistan), Controlled larges areas of land on both sides of the Indus River, Largest two settlements were _______ and Mohenjo Daro, Known for City planning, sewer systems, indoor plumbing, and fortresses around their cities
Mohenjo-daro
Largest city of the Indus Valley civilization. It was centrally located in the extensive floodplain of the Indus River. Little is known about the political institutions of Indus Valley communities, but the large-scale implies central planning. Not Harappa
Sanskrit
(Hinduism) an ancient language of India (the language of the Vedas and of Hinduism)
Vedas
sacred texts in the Hindu religion, they are a set of four collections of hymns and religious ceremonies transmitted by memory through the centuries by Aryan priests
Ganges River
Located in India, this river is considered sacred to Hindus and is used for spiritual cleansing, funeral rites, and other Hindu rituals.
Caste
a social class separated from others by distinctions of hereditary rank or profession or wealth
Brahmins
Priests, at the top of the caste system which the Aryans established
Jati
sub castes; were groups of people within each caste that worked together for one economic function
Sati
a ritual that required a woman to throw herself on her late husband’s funeral pyre or burn herself. This was done gladly and if a woman didn’t comply with this she would be disgraced.
Upanishads
A group of writings sacred in Hinduism concerning the relations of humans, God, and the universe.
karma
(Hinduism and Buddhism) the effects of a person’s actions that determine his destiny in his next incarnation
Dharma
In Hinduism, the duties and obligations of each caste
Xia dynasty
This was the earliest known dynasty. There is no written evidence of this early time period, but artifacts have been found. The people of this time were farmers and made pottery.
Huang He
a major river of Asia in northern China
Shang dynasty
Second Chinese dynasty (about 1750-1122 B.C.) which was mostly a farming society ruled by an aristocracy mostly concerned with war. They’re best remembered for their art of bronze casting.
Mandate of Heaven
People believed that heaven gave them the authority to rule. They also believed that heaven would take it away
Zhou dynasty
the imperial dynasty of China from 1122 to 221 BC; notable for the rise of Confucianism and Taoism
Period of the Warring State
Civil War broke out in during the Zhou Dynasty, beginning an age known in Chinese historical records as the \”____________ of the ____________________ _____________________.\”
Oracle bones
cattle bones or tortoise shells on which Chinese priests would write questions and then interpret answers from the cracks that formed when the bones were heated
Steppe lands
-semiarid grasslands
-stretch from Russia to the Great Wall of CHina
Book of Songs
The Oldest of the Five Classics, preserves 305 of the earliest Chinese poems. Poems deal with political themes, ritual, and romance.
Land bridges
long ago, after the Flood, little trails of land connecting the continents together
Olmecs
(1400 B.C.E. to 500 B.C.E.) earliest known Mexican civilization,lived in rainforests along the Gulf of Mexico, developed calendar and constructed public buildings and temples, carried on trade with other groups.
Maya
a member of an American Indian people of Yucatan and Belize and Guatemala who had a culture (which reached its peak between AD 300 and 900) characterized by outstanding architecture and pottery and astronomy
Tikal
the most important Maya political center between the 4th-9th centuries. It was a city that had temples, pyramids, palaces, and public buildings.
Chichen Itza
Originally a Mayan city; conquered by Toltecs circa 1000 and ruled by Toltec dynasties; architecture featured pyramid of Feathered Serpent (Quetzacoatl).
Popol Vuh
the most famous of the Maya books that recounts the Highland Maya’s version of the story of creation.
Teotihuacan
first major metropolis in Mesoamerica, collapsed around 800 CE. It is most remembered for the gigantic \”pyramid of the sun\”.
Temple of the Giant Jaguar
a stepped pyramid rising sharply to a height of 47 meters (154 feet); dominated the skyline and represented Tikal’s control over the surrounding region
Chavin cult
a new religion that appeared in the Andes mountains after 1000 BCE; enjoyed enormous popularity during the 900 to 800 BCE; spread in the area of modern Peru; vanished about 300 BCE; no information survives on the significance of the cults
Mochica
Mochica is a society in the Andean valleys, near the Moche River, that left behind a remarkable artistic legacy. They made ceramics that represented gods and everyday life.
Austronesians
earliest inhabitants of New Guinea and Oceania; had remarkable seafaring skills and maritime technology; used canoes; later migrated to the Pacific Islands
Lapita
Society from New Guinea to Tonga (1500-500 B.C.E.) with agricultural villages, networks of trade and communication, and hierarchical chiefdoms.

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