AP World History 1450-1750 Vocab

Flashcard maker : William Hopper
Absolute Monarch
ruler with complete control over the government and the lives of the people.
Agrarian
relating to land; relating to the management or farming of land
Atheists
Not believing in god
Capitalism
an economic system based on private ownership of capital
Cash Crop
a readily sellable crop that is grown and gathered for the market (as vegetables or cotton or tobacco)
Circumnavigate
travel around, either by plane or ship
colonization
physical process whereby the colonizer takes over another place, putting its own government in charge and either moving its own people into the place or bringing in indentured outsiders to gain control of the people and the land
commerce
transactions (sales and purchases) having the objective of supplying commodities (goods and services)
CommonWealth
a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them
conseqences
what someone has to pay because of the result of a situation…Roque had a party wthout permission so his consequence is no cell phone or basketball.
continuity
n. Uninterrupted connection in space, time, operation, or development.
convent
a religious residence especially for nuns
currency
Coins and paper bills used as money;having to do with money
deists
Believed in a God who had created a perfect universe and then allowed it to operate according to Natural Laws
divine
terms referring to the Judeo-Christian God
Divine right
belief that a rulers authority comes directly from god.
Economy
the system of production and distribution and consumption
hedonism
an ethical system that evaluates the pursuit of pleasure as the highest good
institution
an establishment consisting of a building or complex of buildings where an organization for the promotion of some cause is situated
jurisdiction
(n.) an area of authority or control; the right to administer justice
Mercantilism
an economic system (Europe in 18th C) to increase a nation’s wealth by government regulation of all of the nation’s commercial interests
monarchy
rule by a single person
demography
the branch of sociology that studies the characteristics of human populations
monastic
a male religious living in a cloister and devoting himself to contemplation and prayer and work
Monk
a man who separates himself from ordinary human society in order to pursue a life of total dedication to God
monopoly
(economics) a market in which there are many buyers but only one seller
morality
concern with the distinction between good and evil or right and wrong
nun
a woman who has taken a sacred vow to devote her life to prayer and service to the church
papacy/papal
The central administration of the Roman Catholic Church, of which the pope is the head. (pp. 258, 445)
parliament
a legislative assembly in certain countries (e.g., Great Britain)
patriarch
any of the early Biblical characters regarded as fathers of the human race
pope
the head of the Roman Catholic Church
revolution
the overthrow of a government by those who are governed
salvation
(Christianity) the act of delivering from sin or saving from evil
sanctioned
authorized approval or permission
satire
a literary work that ridicules or criticizes a human vice through humor or derision
urbanization
movement of people from rural areas to cities
utopia/utopian
an imaginary place considered to be perfect or ideal; characterized by or aspiring to impracticable perfection
vassals
lesser lords who pledged their service and loyalty to a greater lord — in a military capacity
venerate
(v.) to regard with reverence, look up to with great respect
vernacular
the everyday speech of the people (as distinguished from literary language)
encomienda system
priviledge given by Spain to Spanish settlers in the Americas which allowed to control the lands and people of a certain territory
hacienda system
large plantations owned by spanish, leaving Indians with poorer land
Akbar the great (Mughal)
known for religious tolerance. grandson of Babur who created a strong central government
Dutch East India Company
Government-chartered joint-stock company that controlled the spice trade in the East Indies.
Elizabeth of England
1558-1603, She supported the northern protestant cause as a safeguard against Spain attacking England. , daughter of Henry and Anne Boleyn, became ruler after Mary Tudor (her half sister),brought religous stability to england, didn’t care what people believed as long as they keep quiet about it,Her husband was her country
Huguenots
French Protestants, French Protestants influenced by John Calvin which made them, french calvinists
Eastern orthodox
this Christian religion broke away from the Roman church when it would not accept the authority of the Pope as the head of the church
jesuit order
a Roman Catholic order founded by Saint Ignatius of Loyola in 1534 to defend Catholicism against the Reformation and to do missionary work among the heathen
Martin luther
a German monk who became one of the most famous critics of the Roman Catholic Chruch. In 1517, he wrote 95 theses, or statements of belief attacking the church practices.He also believed in a merciful god
LouisXIV
was recognized as one of the most powerful monarchs of Europe he ruled for 72 years and was known for sun king he moved the capital from paris to Versailles
peter the great
ruled Russia from 1682 to 1725, wanted closer ties to western europe, modernize and strengthen Russia
philip II
son of Louis VII whose reign as king of France saw wars with the English that regained control of Normandy and Anjou and most of Poitou (1165-1223)
shogun
a hereditary military dictator of Japan
Zheng He
Chinese admiral during the Ming Dynasty, he led great voyages that spread China’s fame throughout Asia
johann Gutenburg
German printer; in 1448 he invented a printing press that used movable type
John Locke
English empiricist philosopher who believed that all knowledge is derived from sensory experience (1632-1704)
Shah Abbas
Also known as Abbas the Great, took the throne in 1587 and helped create the Safavid culture
Boyars
Russian nobles
Ivan III
grand duke of Muscovy whose victories against the Tartars laid the basis for Russian unity (1440-1505)
Ivan IV
the first czar of Russia (1530-1584)
Age of reason
Another name for the Enlightenment
Columbian exchange
The exchange of goods and ideas between Native Americans and Europeans
counter exchange
2 substances (blood & water) flowing in opposite directions of each other that maximize a gradient for exchange
counter reformation
catholic church’s attempt to stop the protestant movement and to Strengthen the Catholic Church
edict of nantes
1598 – Granted the Huguenots liberty of conscience and worship.

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