AP World Chapter 32

Flashcard maker : Brad Bledsoe
Capitulations
Agreements that exempted Europeans from Ottoman law. Humiliated Ottoman officials
Sultan Selim III
Wanted to remodel his army after European forces. New European instructors threatened Janissaries who revolted and locked up the sultan.
The Taiping Rebellion
Rebellion inspired by Hong Xiuquan. Called for the destruction of the Qing dynsasty. Included: no private property, no foot binding/concubines, communal wealth, free public education, literacy.(Some wanted industrial society)
Sergei Witte
Started industrialization in Russia. Made trans-Siberian railway.
The Crimean War
Russia tried to expand, but failed. Showed weakness of empire because it could not beat Europe.
The Young Ottomans
Opposed Tanzimat and wanted: local autonomy, political decentralization, and individual freedom. Constiutional government
What led to the beginning of the Russian Social Reform Movements in the 19th century?
The Emancipation of Serfs
Sultan Abdul Hamid II
Ruled Ottoman empire as a until the Young Turks sent him into exile. ruined constiution and stood by Tanzimat
The Tanzimat Era
\”Reorganization era\” Had reforms such as commercial code, penal code, maritime code, and new civil code. (public trials, right to privacy,and equality before law,sep of church and state)
The Young Turks
Called for universal suffrage, equality before law, freedom of religion, free public education, sep of church and state, emancipation of women. Established Mehmed V Rashid as puppet sultan
The Emancipation of the Turks
The key to social reform in Russia. Some people moraly didn’t want turks, many believed it was economically ineffective. Abolished by Alexander II
The working conditions of the growing Russian industrial class
Freed serfs hated factory work, even as industrialism grew
Zemstvos
elected district assemblies
Duma’s
Russia’s 1st parliamentary government
Alexander II
the son of Nicholas I who, as czar of Russia, introduced reforms that abolished serfdom
Bloody Sunday
Peaceful until Russian soldiers inadvertently opened fire on demonstrators, turning them against the tsar. Possibly the start of the Revolution.
Lin Zexu
Destroyed opium trade, ignited opium war
The Land and Freedom Party
killed Alexander II
The Russo-Japanese War
A conflict that grew out of the rival imperialist ambitions of the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over Manchuria and Korea
NIcholas II
Last tsar of Russia, he went to the frontlines in WWI to try to rally the troops, but was forced to abdicate after his wife made horrible decisions under the influence of Rasputin
The Opium War
War between Britain and the Qing Empire, occasioned by the Qing’s refusal to permit the import of opium. the victorious british imposed the one-sided treaty of nanking
The Self-Strengthening Movement
A late 19th century movement in which the Chinese modernized their army and encouraged Western investment in factories and railways
By the end of the 19th century the only thing that was keeping China from being divided up into spheres of influence by foregners was?
Distrust among foreign powers
Cixi
Believed that foreign powers were pushing for her retirement, through her support behind anti foreign Boxer Rebellion
Muhammad Ali
Built powerful army he drafter peasants and established himself as ruler of Egypt
Mahmud II
Selims cousin, followed through with European style army and killed rebellious Janissaries
The Proclamation of the Young Turks
Plan for new turkish state post Abdul. free exercise of religion, etc.
Kang Youwei
leading figure in the Hundred days reform, wanted to industrialize china and Guangxu listened. tried to turn china into constitutional monarchy. killed by cixi
Liang Qichao
Also leading figure in hundred days reform. killed by cixi
The Society of the RIghteous and Harmonious FIsts
Boxer rebels supported by Cixi
Ito Hirobumi
Most important journey to europe to study foreign constitutions. drew inspiration from German
The Meiji Restoration
The political program that followed the destruction of the Tokugawa SHogunate in 1868, in which a collection of young leaders set Japan on the path of centralization, industrialization, and imperialism
Who forced Japan to open up to foreign trade?
U.S naval squadron led by Commodore Matthew C. Perry
The ___, __,___,___ were all rebellions that threatened China in the __century
Taiping, Tungan, Muslim, Nian..19th
Mizonu Tadakuni
Shoguns advisor. cancelled debts of samurai and daimyo, abolished merchant guilds, and compelled peasants to cultivate rice- most reforms were ineffective
The Janissaries
Back bone of imperial forces broken down and masterminded palace coups. neglected military and ignored advances in technology
Who said, \”As months accumulate and years pass by, the poison they have produced, increases in its wicked integrity and its repugnant odor reaches as high as the sky.\”?
Lin Zexu

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