AP Psychology Unit 1: Psychology’s History & Approaches

Flashcard maker : Carol Rushing
Edward Bradford Tichener
Invented structuralism
Charles Darwin
Invented natural selection
Mary Whiton Calkins
Memory researcher who was mentored by William James and went through a lot to become the first woman president of the American Psychological Association
Margaret Floy Washburn
Psychology’s first female PhD and second female APA president
Empiricism
The idea that knowledge comes from experience and therefore science should only be based on observations and experiments
Structuralism
An early psychological idea that encouraged people to look inside themselves and use self reflection to discover the structural elements of the mind
Functionalism
A type of psychology that deals with our mental and behavioral processes and how they function
Experimental Psychology
The study of behavior and thinking through experiments
Behaviorism
The idea that psychology should be objective and should study behavior without dealing with mental processes
Humanistic Psychology
A historically important perspective that emphasized a healthy person’s potential for personal growth
Cognitive Neuroscience
The study of brain activity linked with mental activity
Psychology
The science of behavior and mental processes
Nature-Nurture Issue
The controversy over the contributions of biology and experience to psychology-related traits and behaviors
Natural Selection
Darwin’s idea that nature selects certain traits to be passed down that best enable an organism to survive
Levels of Analysis
The different approaches to looking at any given phenomenon (biological, psychological, social-cultural, etc.)
Biopsychosocial Approach
An approach that considers the influences of biological, psychological, and social-cultural factors
Biological Psychology
Studies how biological and psychological processes are related
Evolutionary Psychology
Studies the roots of behavior and mental processes using natural selection
Psychodynamic Psychology
Studies how a person’s unconscious affects their behavior and uses this information to help treat psychological disorders
Behavioral Psychology
The scientific study of observable behavior and its explanation by the principles of learning
Cognitive Psychology
The scientific study of all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
Social-Cultural Psychology
The study of how situations and cultures affect our behavior and thinking; states that much of your behavior and your feelings are dictated by the culture you live in
Psychometrics
The scientific study of the measurement of human abilities, attitudes, and traits
Basic Research
Pure scientific research that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base
Developmental Psychology
A branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span
Educational Psychology
The study of how psychological processes affect and can enhance teaching and learning
Personality Psychology
The study of a person’s individual pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting
Social Psychology
Scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to other people
Applied Research
Scientific study intended to solve practical problems
Industrial-Organizational Psychology
The use of psychological ideas and methods to bettering human behavior in the work place
Human Factors Psychology
Study of how people and machines interact and the design of safe and efficient machines and environments
Counseling Psychology
Type of psychology that helps people with problems related to living and in bettering their well-being
Clinical Psychology
Type of psychology that studies, analyzes, and treats people with psychological disorders
Psychiatry
Type of medicine that has to do with psychological disorders. Practiced by physicians who provide medical treatments as well as psychotherapy

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