AP Psychology Thinking and Language Chapter 10 Study Guide

Cognition
All the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.
What do cognitive psychologists study?
All Mental Activities associated with processing, understanding, remembering, and communicating
Concept
A mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people.
Prototype
A mental image or best example of a category. Matching new items to the prototype provides a quick and easy method for including items in a category (as when comparing feathered creatures to a prototypical bird, such as a robin).
Algorithm
A methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem.
Heuristic
A rule of thumb based on experience used to make decisions.
Insight
A sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem; it contrasts with strategy-based solutions.
Confirmation Bias
A tendency to search for information that confirms one’s preconceptions
Fixation
The inability to see a problem from a new perspective; an impediment to problem solving
Mental Set
A tendency to approach a problem in one particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past
Functional Fixedness
The tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions; an impediment to problem solving.
Representativeness Heuristic
Judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; may lead one to ignore other relevant information.
Two Types of Fixedness
Functional Fixedness, Mental Set
Availability Heuristic
Estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind, we presume such events are common
Overconfidence
Tendency to overestimate our ability to make correct predictions
Framing
The terms in which a problem is stated or the way that it is structured.
Belief Bias
the tendency for one’s preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasoning, sometimes by making invalid conclusions seem valid, or valid conclusions seem invalid
Belief Perservance
clinging to one’s initial conceptions after the basis on which they were forms has been discredited
Artificial Intelligence
A computer system performing a task that would require human intelligence if performed by a human.
Computer Neural Networks
Computer circuits that mimic the brain’s interconnected neural cells, performing tasks such as learning to recognize visual patterns and smells
Language
A system of communication through the use of speech, a collection of sounds understood by a group of people to have the same meaning.
Phoneme
In language, the smallest distinctive sound unit.
Morpheme
A basic unit of meaning in a language.
Grammar
In a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others
Semantics
The set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language
Syntax
Language rules that govern how words can be combined to form meaningful phrases and sentences
Babbling Stage
Beginning at about 4 months, the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language
One-Word Stage
The stage in speech development, from about age 1 to 2, during which a child speaks mostly in single words
Two-Word Stage
Beginning about age 2, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly two-word statements.
Telegraphic Speech
early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram–‘go car’–using mostly nouns and verbs and omitting ‘auxiliary’ words
Linguistic Determinism
Whorf’s hypothesis that language determines the way we think