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AP Psychology Chapter 16 Social Psychology

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The scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another.
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Social Psychology
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the theory that we tend to give a causal explanation for someone’s behavior, often by crediting either the situation or the person’s disposition
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Attribution Theory
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the tendency for observers, when analyzing another’s behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition
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Fundamental Attribution Error
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a belief and feeling that predisposes one to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events
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Attitude
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Occurs when people think carefully about a message & are influenced because they find the arguements compelling
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Central Route to Persuasion
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when people do not scrutinize the message but are influenced mostly by other factors such as speakers attractiveness
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Peripheral Rout to Persuasion
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The tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request.
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Foot-in-the-door Phenomen
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a set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave
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Role
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the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort we feel when two of our thoughts are inconsistent
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Cognitive Dissonance Theory
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adjusting one’s behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard
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Conformity
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influence resulting from a person’s desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval
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Normative Social Influence
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influence resulting from one’s willingness to accept others’ opinions about reality
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Informational Social Influence
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improved performance of tasks in the presence of others; occurs with simple or well-learned tasks but not with tasks that are difficult or not yet mastered
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Social Facilitation
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the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 739)
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Social Loafing
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the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity
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Deindividuation
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the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives.
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Groupthink
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the enhancement of a group’s prevailing attitudes through discussion within the group
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Group Polarization
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an unjustifiable attitude toward a group and its members
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Prejudice
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a generalized belief about a group of people
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Stereotype
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unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group or its members
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Discrimination
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“Us” – people with whom one shares a common identity
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Ingroup
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“Them” – those perceived as different or apart from one’s ingroup
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Outgroup
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the tendency to favor one’s own group
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Ingroup Bias
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the theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame
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Scapegoat Theory
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The tendency to recall faces of one’s own race more accurately than faces of other races.
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Other-race Effect
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The tendency of people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get.
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Just-world Phenomenon
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any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy
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Aggression
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The principle that frustration–the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal–creates anger, which can generate aggression.
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Frustration-aggression Principle
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the phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them
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Mere Exposure Effect
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an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship
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Passionate Love
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the deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined
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Companionate Love
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a condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it.
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Equity
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Revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others.
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Self-disclosure
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unselfish regard for the welfare of others
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Altruism
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the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present
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Bystander Effect
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the theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs
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Social Exchange Theory
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an expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them
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Reciprocity Norm
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An expectation that people will help those dependent upon them.
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Social-responsibility Norm
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A perceived incompatability of actions, goals or ideas.
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Conflict
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a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior
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Social Trap
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Mutual views often held by conflicting people, as when each side sees itself as ethical and peaceful and views the other side as evil and aggressive.
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Mirror-image Perceptions
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shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation
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Superordinate Goals
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Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension-Reduction, strategy designed to decrease international tensions. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 769)
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GRIT