AP Psychology Chapter 10

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cognition
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All the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
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concept
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A mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people
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prototype
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A full-scale working model used to test and improve a design concept by making actual observations and necessary adjustments.
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algorithm
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a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. Contrasts with the usually speedier-but also more error-prone- use of heuristics.
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heuristic
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a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error-prone than algorithms.
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insight
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a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem; it contrasts with strategy-based solutions
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confirmation bias
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a tendency to search for info that confirms one’s preconceptions
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fixation
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the inability to see a problem from a new perspective; an impediment to problem solving
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mental set
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a tendency to approach a problem in a particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past
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functional fixedness
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the tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions an impediment to problem solving
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Representative heuristic
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judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; may lead one to ignore other relevant information.
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Availability heuristic
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estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind (perhaps because of their vividness), we presume such events are common.
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overconfidence
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Our tendency to believe we will perform better than we actually do
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Framing
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In thought, the terms in which a problem is stated or the way that it is structured.
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Belief bias
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the tendency for one’s preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasoning, sometimes by making invalid conclusions seem valid, or valid conclusions seem invalid
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Belief perseverance
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Clinging to one’s initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited
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Language
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A system of communication through the use of speech, a collection of sounds understood by a group of people to have the same meaning.
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Phoneme
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In language, the smallest distinctive sound unit.
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Morpheme
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In a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or a part of a word (such as a prefix)
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Grammar
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In a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others.
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Semantics
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the set of rules by which we derive meaning from words and sentences in a given language.
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Syntax
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Arrangement of words in phrases and sentences
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babbling stage
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Beginning at about 4 months, the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language.
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one-word stage
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The stage in speech development, from about age 1 to 2, during which a child speaks mostly in single words
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two-word stage
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beginning about age 2, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly two-word statements
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telgraphic speech
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Between 18 to 24 months (approximately), children begin using two word sentences and telegraphic speech. Telegraphic (d.) speech refers to the use of two words to convey an idea or sentence
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linguistic determinism
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Whorf’s hypothesis that language determines the way we think
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divergent thinking
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The ability to use previously gained information to debate or discuss issues which have no agreed upon definitive resolution.
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convergent thinking
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Logical and conventional thought leading to a single answer.
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logic
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An implied comparison resulting when one thing is directly called another. To be logically acceptable, support must be appropriate to the claim, believable and consistent.
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syllogism
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A form of reasoning in which two statements are made and a conclusion is drawn from them. A syllogism is the format of a formal argument that consists of a major premise, a minor premise, and a conclusion. Example: Major Premise: All tragedies end unhappily. Minor Premise: Hamlet is a tragedy. Conclusion: Therefore, Hamlet ends unhappily.
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metacognition
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“Thinking about thinking” or the ability to evaluate a cognitive task to determine how best to accomplish it, and then to monitor and adjust one’s performance on that task
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inductive reasoning
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A type of logic in which generalizations are based on a large number of specific observations.
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deductive reasoning
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Reasoning in which a conclusion is reached by stating a general principle and then applying that principle to a specific case (The sun rises every morning; therefore, the sun will rise on Tuesday morning.)
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bounded rationality
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A process of making decisions by constructing simplified models that extract the essential features from problems without capturing all their complexity.

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