The federal government provides matching funds, dollar for dollar, for money raised by small donors for what types of elections?
When a district is drawn in a bizarre or unusual shape to assist a candidate, it is
The text suggests that elections are decided by __________ voters.
Presidential elections are held every
The experience with 527 organizations in the 2004 elections suggests that campaign finance laws
are not likely to take money out of politics
The effect of winning early elections on candidate support is called
momentum or the bandwagon effect
A position issue is an issue that does not divide voters.
In recent elections, candidates have relied increasingly on
broadcasting to reach potential voters
Since 1962, the incumbent reelection percentage in the House has never dropped below
The quintessential summary of retrospective voting, according to Ronald Reagan, was,
“are you better off than you were four years ago”
When Hubert Humphrey won the Democratic nomination for the presidency in 1968, he did so
without competing in a single state primary
The current size of the House at 435 members was set in the year 1911.
Most of the money that individual candidates spend during the course of a campaign is directed toward
media related activities
When a voter votes for the candidate whom he or she considers more likely to do a better job in office, that voting is referred to as
Campaign finance reforms
all of these choices are true
Research has found that highly emotional ads have the most effect on people who know the least aboutpolitics.
most political ads are
Funding of congressional elections comes from
private sources only
By the time the 2012 presidential election was completed, the Obama campaign and the Romney campaign, together with a dozen other contenders for the presidency, had raised and spent approximately
After the last two census adjustments, which state has benefited the most by gaining the highest number of seats in the House?
In Federal Election Commission v. Wisconsin Right to Life, the Supreme Court held that
issue advocacy was protected by the first amendment and could not be banned
Malapportionment is when districts are drawn for pure political reasons.
Congressional elections are held every
Which of the following is not considered a pivotal state in presidential elections?
In Israel and the Netherlands, the names of candidates for the legislature do not even appear on theballot.
After party caucuses when national nominating conventions dominated, the real power, in selecting presidential nominees, was wielded by
local party leaders
The agency responsible for monitoring federal elections and campaign finance is the
federal election commission
Presidential candidates must accept public funding.
Democrats could be predicted to win every presidential election if the only factor were
Nearly everyone is in agreement over a __________ issue, and the candidate fully supports the public’s view.
In the 1800s, most people voted straight party ticket.
The President’s party tends to do well in off-year elections.
The text argues that the U.S. constitutional system was designed to make the adoption of radical departures in policy
Originally, presidential candidates were chosen by
A comprehensive study on political advertisements found that the largest number emphasized
Which of the following does the text suggest is a critical factor in presidential elections?
none of the above
After the 1964 election gave Democrats large majorities in Congress and the Presidency
none of these choices are true
The text suggests that the term campaigning has become a synonym for
Trade and corporate PAC money tends to flow exclusively to ideologically similar parties.
Democrats who participate in the Iowa caucus tend to be
more liberal than democrats generally
Which type of voting requires a lot of information about candidates and issues?
Soft money is money that is obtained by
To be a member of the House of Representatives, a person must be
A __________ issue is one in which the rival candidates have opposing views on a question that also divides the voters.
Voters know, generally speaking, if the country is headed on the right track or wrong track.
Which of the following is true of political advertising?
none of these answers are true
Concerned about the shortened length of campaigns, parties have begun to
. reduce frontloading of primary elections and reduce delegates from early states.
Since 1964, African Americans have voted Democratic by at least
Ordinary advertising directed at or against a candidate, but not by any candidate’s wish, is
During ordinary times, every election is critical and forces the parties to fight over a single dominant issue.
The most important factor in winning the Presidency is
According to the text, campaign matter for
Assigning credit and blame, activating latent partisanship, and judging qualities of candidates are all true.
The effect of gerrymandering on Congressional elections is much larger than many claim.
Since 1911 the size of the House of Representatives has been fixed at _______ members.
when a district is drawn in a bizarre or unusual shape to assist a candidate, it is
The Constitution’s doctrine of “privileged speech” has been interpreted by the Supreme Court to mean
that members of Congress cannot be sued or prosecuted for anything that they say or write in connection with their legislative duties.
Electoral coattails refers to
the winning presidential candidate’s positive effect on congressional elections.
Many scholars argue that the foremost factor in determining how people vote is
If you run for a seat in the House against the incumbent, the odds are very much against you.
Most of the money for congressional candidates comes from
It is unconstitutional to restrict the expenditures of a candidate’s campaigns, but contributions to campaigns can be limited.
When a district is so unequal that the votes of citizens are unequal in size
Most political ads are
In the 1980 presidential election, many people voted for Ronald Reagan over Jimmy Carter as a vote against Carter’s performance. This is an example of a(n)
A major difference between presidential campaigns and congressional campaigns is that
presidential races are generally more competitive
In a strong party parliamentary system, once a party wins office
it can implement its platform line by line
By custom, Members of Congress must live in the district that they represent, not just the state.
The campaign finance law created in the 1970s was the direct by-product of
the water gate scandal
One advantage that incumbents always have over challengers is
their use of free mailing, or franks
Presidential campaigning has changed drastically; and fundraising has lost its importance.
Most demographic groups favor one party or the other by
5% or less
Disputed congressional elections are decided by
Based on research, presidential debates seem to
matter for the remaining undecided
A U.S. Senator must be at least 30 years old.
The following is an example of a valence issue.
all of these choices are true