AP Gov chapter 19

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2015 fiscal year
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3.7 trillion
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Welfare state
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Idea of gov providing and protecting individual wellbeing socially and economically
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Social welfare programs
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Programs that provide \”minimum living condition\”
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4 social welfare programs
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Income to elderly, health care, public assistance, education
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2 key points of government providing welfare
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New deal and great society
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Three parts of social security
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Social insurance, aid to the destitute, health and welfare services
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Social insurance
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Old age and surviving spouse benefits. State to national unemployment insurance
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Aid to the destitute
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Grants in aid to state for needy elderly, families with kids, blind or disabled
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Health and welfare services
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For disabled, orphans, vocational rehab
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How is social security funded
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Payroll tax 6.2% from both employees and employers
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Where does social security go
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Into a trust fund for all to share
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Reforms by Reagan in 1983
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Down benefits, up taxes, up retirement age to 65
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Problem with solvency
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Social security will run out of funds in 2030/40
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Republican plan
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Partial privatization: take out 10% of SS and invest it
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democrat plan
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Retirement savings plus: tax credits and matching incentive program only add
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1937 ratio of social security
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9:1
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2005 ratio of social secuity
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3.3:1
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How gov defines poverty level
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Minimal cash income for basic needs
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Calculating poverty
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3x cost of minimally nutritious food
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Poverty threshold for family of 4
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$24300
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How can poverty threshold change
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Up prices, politicians promote change, budget process, change unemployment level
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Factors not in poverty level
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Noncash benefits, food stamps, medical payments, subsidized housing
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% of US below poverty level
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13%
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Feminization of poverty
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More women are poor
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Why feminization of poverty
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Not paid equally, up divorce, up teen pregnancy, child care
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How to fix feminization
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Cover education and child care costs, going after dead beat dads for child support
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Advocate for welfare reform
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People were not moving off of welfare
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Point of TANF
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Get people off in a shorter amount of time (5 max)
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Surprising about signing of TANF
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Clinton was democrat signed a bill restricting public welfare
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Results of TANF
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fewer people on welfare
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ER first contact
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Where people without health insurance go
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Health maintenance org (HMO)
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More restrictive less costly
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Preferred provider org (PPO)
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Less restrictive more costly
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Two types of insurance
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HMO and PPO
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Medicare part A
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Hospitalization plan for elderly
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Medicare part B
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Voluntary insurance for doctor visits/ out of patient care
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Medicare part D
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Prescription drug coverage for elderly
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Medicaid
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Poor elderly need based medical care by federal grants
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ESEA
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Great society: help poor public schools
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IDEA
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Help disabled students
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NDEA
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Freaked Sputnik improve math and science education
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TIMSS
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Freak poor international standing, improve math and science education
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No child left behind (NCLB)
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Reading and math standards, annual testing, teacher proficiency
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Means tested benefits
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Benefits provided to people with income below a levek
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Example of means tested benefits
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Medicaid, free school lunch
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Non means tested benefits
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Benefits to all regardless of income
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Example of Non means tested benefits
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Social security, Medicare
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Spending compared to other countries
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We spend more than anyone else
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Interest group that opposes health care
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American medical association
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Difference between Medicare and Medicaid
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Medicare: entitlement Medicaid: discretionary
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SCHIP
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Health care to poor kids right about line for Medicaid
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Equity
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Poor having history of not being treated well
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Head start
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Fed subsidized pre school to poor areas
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Achievement gap
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Minorities need to be given more attention
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International achievement
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Still behind everyone else (we count all, Europe counts top 2/3)
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Funding
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Wealthier district is better educated
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Reform education
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Smaller class sizes, year round, career focused, more AP or IB
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Goals of NCLB
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Read by 3rd grade, focus on core: math science English
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Provisions of NCLB
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Standardized tests annually 3-8 and once 10-11, teachers teach major or minor
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NCLB effectiveness
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Hard to measure focused changes can’t be bad?

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