A&P ch15 digestive system

Flashcard maker : Lily Taylor
combines with food molecules and splits them into smaller molecules
water
speed up hydrolysis of food molecules
digestive enzymes
inner layer of the alimentary canal
mucosa
outer layer of the alimentary canal
serosa
Form lateral walls of the mouth
cheeks
Separates oral and nasal cavities
palate
Manipulates food during chewing
tongue
Tiny projections containing taste buds
papillae
Number of deciduous teeth
20
Teeth used to bite off pieces of food
incisors
Teeth used to grasp and tear food
cuspids
Teeth used to crush and grind food
bicuspids and molars
Cleanses and lubricates mouth
saliva
Salivary enzyme acting on starch
salivary amylase
End product of digestion in mouth
maltose
Saliva secretion is regulated by ______
means

neural
Number of permanent teeth
32
Three pairs of salivary glands.
parotid
submandibular
sublingual
Tube carrying food to the stomach
esophagus
Relaxes to let food enter stomach
cardiac sphinctor
Carries food from mouth to esophagus
pharynx
Covers laryngeal opening in swallowing
epiglottis
Region of stomach joining esophagus
cardiac
Region of stomach joining duodenum
pyloric
Glands of mucosa secreting gastric juice
gastic glands
Hormone stimulating gastric secretion
gastric glands
Hormones inhibiting gastric secretion
CCk and secretin
Autonomic impulses stimulating gastric secretion
parasympathetic
Hormone secreted by gastric mucosa
gastrin
Acid in gastric juice
hydrochloric acid
Gastric enzyme acting on proteins
pepsin
Gastric enzyme curdling milk
rennin
Products of gastric protein digestion
peptides
Gastric substance enabling absorption of
vitamin B12 by small intestine

intrinsic factor
Carries pancreatic juice from pancreatic duct to
duodenum

pancreatic duct
Two hormones stimulating secretion of pancreatic
juice

cholecystokinin and secretin
Source of these hormones
intestinal mucosa
Pancreatic enzyme acting on starch
pancreatic amylase
Product of pancreatic starch digestion
maltose
Pancreatic enzyme acting on fats
lipase
Products of pancreatic fat digestion
monoglycerides and fatty acids
Pancreatic enzyme acting on proteins
trypsin
Products of pancreatic protein digestion
peptides
Removed from amino acids and converted to urea
amine groups
Vessels carrying blood to liver – carries oxygen-rich blood
hepatic artery
Vessels carrying blood to liver – carries nutrient-rich blood
hepatic portal vein
Vessel carrying blood from liver
hepatic vein
Carbohydrate stored in liver
glycogen
structural and functional units of the liver
hepatic lobules
Secretion formed by liver
bile
Stores excess bile
gallbladder
Carries bile to duodenum
common bile duct
Hormone contracting gallbladder
cholecystokinin
Bile component emulsifying lipids
bile salts
Bile component from hemoglobin breakdown
bile pigments (billirubin)
spaces in hepatic lobule receiving blood from branches of the hepatic artery and hepatic portal vein
hepatic sinusoids
vessels in hepatic lobules that merge to form the hepatic vein
central veins
Segment continuous with the cecum
ileum
Membranes supporting small intestine
mesentery
Relaxes to allow chyme to enter the small intestine
pyloric sphincter
Secretion of intestinal glands
intestinal juice
Fingerlike projections of the mucosa
villi
Microscopic folds of exposed epithelial cell
membranes

microvilli
Hormone released by mucosa due to presence of fat-laden chyme
cholecystokinin
Hormone released by mucosa due to presence of acid chyme
secretin
Mechanism (neural or hormonal) that stimulates secretion of intestinal juice
neural
Enzyme acting on sucrose
sucrase
End products of sucrose digestion
glucose and fructose
Enzyme acting on lactose
lactase
Enzyme acting on maltose
maltase
End product of maltose digestion
glucose
End products of lactose digestion
glucose; galctose
Enzyme acting on fats
lipase
End products of fat digestion
monoglycerides and fatty acids
Enzyme acting on peptides
peptidase
End products of peptide digestion
amino acids
Segment continuous with the stomach
duodenum
Pouchlike first part of large intestine
cecum
External opening of large intestine
anus
Colon segment along left side of abdomen
descending colon
Colon segment along right side of abdomen
ascending colon
Colon segment continuous with rectum
sigmoid colon
Wormlike extension of cecum
appendix
Involuntarily controlled anal sphincter
internal anal sphincter
Voluntarily controlled anal sphincter
external anal sphincter
Decompose undigested materials
colon bacteria
Fluid absorbed by large intestine
water
Relaxes, allowing chyme to enter cecum
ileocecal valve
Reflex activated by filling of rectum with feces
defecation reflex
Dietary source of most carbohydrates
plants
Plant polysaccharide providing fiber
cellulose
Preferred energy source for body cells
glucose
Organs regulating blood glucose levels
liver and pancrease
Most common lipids in the diet
triglycerides
Type of fats common in animal foods
saturated
Type of fats common in plant foods
unsaturated
Lipid abundant in egg yolks
cholesterol
Lipid used to form steroid hormones
cholesterol
Lipid forming much of plasma membranes
phopholipids
Molecules transporting lipids in blood
lipoproteins
Organ helping to regulate blood levels of triglycerides and cholesterol
liver
Amino acids that cannot be made by liver
essential amino acids
The alimentary canal is approximately ______ feet long in an adult
29
An organic compound that the body needs in minute amounts is a
vitamin
The folds in the mucosa of the stomach which allows it to expand as it fills with food are the
rugae
The taste buds of the tongue are located on the
papillae
The hormone that stimulates the secretions of the stomach is
gastrin
Fatty chyme entering the small intestine stimulates the secretion of _______, which stimulates the pancreas to secrete __________.
cholecystokinin; enzymes
The ________ nervous system innervates the intestinal mucosa and may stimulate the secretion of intestinal enzymes.
parasympathetic
In addition to the secretion of bile, the liver is active in
synthesizing blood proteins.
converting nutrients into usable forms.
detoxification.
One of the nutrients important for the synthesis of DNA and RNA is
folic acid
A nutrient that is required for the synthesis of fatty acids as well as playing a role in cellular respiration is ________.
biotin
The fat-soluble vitamin required for the formation and maintenance of cell membranes is
vitamin E.
The layers of the alimentary canal, from outside in, are the
serosa, muscular, submucosa and mucosa
The _______ salivary glands secrete a saliva rich in amylase
parotid
________ catalyzes the digestion of starch and glycogen to maltose
Amylase
Gastric juice secretion is increased by parasympathetic impulses and the hormone ________, which is produced by the stomach
gastrin
The gastric enzyme ________ is secreted in inactive form and activated by the low pH of gastric juice
pepsin
Acid chyme entering the duodenum causes the intestinal mucosa to secrete the hormone ________, which stimulates the secretion of ________
secretin; pancreatic juice
Bile, which emulsifies fats, is secreted by the
liver
Both ________ and ________ catalyze the hydrolysis of proteins to form peptides
pepsin; trypsin
The enzyme catalyzing the hydrolysis of triglycerides is
lipase
Carbohydrate digestion begins in the ________ and concludes in the ________.
mouth; small intestine
The end products of fat digestion are converted into ________ within epithelial cells and move into the ________ of villi
chylomicrons; lacteals
The primary function of the large intestine is the
absorption of water and certain minerals and vitamins
_________ are primarily used as an energy source, but unused quantities are converted into _________ and stored
Monosaccharides; triglycerides
Salivary amylase secreted into the oral cavity starts the digestion of
starch
The pancreatic duct transports secretions from the pancreas to the
duodenum
substances found in pancreatic juice
trypsin
amylase
lipase
The final portion of the small intestine is the
ileum
The first portion of the large intestine is the
cecum
The term metabolism refers to
All the chemical reactions of the body
Glucose is stored in the liver as
glycogen
During digestion, proteins are broken down into molecules of
amino acids
correct order for food as it passes through the organs of the digestive system
mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, anus
tooth part that is NOT living
enamel
The tongue functions to
position food for swallowing
If the epiglottis does not function correctly, what might happen
one might choke
The primary function of the stomach is to
Store and digest food
To which combination of organs in the digestive system is chemical digestion of proteins confined
Stomach and small intestine
The fingerlike projections along the surface of the small intestine are called
villi
The primary function of the small intestine is to
digest and absorb nutrients
The pancreas is an important auxiliary organ of the digestive system because it
provides several digestive enzymes to the small intestine
What is the function of bile?
Bile aids in the digestion of fats
Villi, microvilli, and the folds of the small intestine all function to
increase surface area
what hormone produced by the small intestine, causes the releases of digestive enzymes and bile
vasoactive intestinal peptide
What is the primary role of the large intestine in digestion
absorb ions, water, and vitamins to maintain homeostasis
If the large intestine becomes irritated and peristalsis increases, ____________ may result
diarrhea
What is primary the role of the bacteria found in the large intestine
digest food and produce vitamins
Digestive processes that need to respond quickly are under the control of the ____________
nervous system
the major accessory organs of the alimentary
teeth, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, pancrease
hollow space within the alimentary canal through which food passes
lumen
layer of the alimentary canal that is formed of the visceral peritoneum and is continuous with the parietal peritoneum
serosa
layer of the alimentary canal that consist of two layers of smooth muscle that differ in their orientation of their muscle fibers
muscular layer
layer of the alimentary canal that contains nerves, lymphatic vessels, and blood vessels embedded in loose connective tissue.
submucosa
layer of the alimentary canal that consist of a surface layer of columnar epithelial tissue supported by underlying connective tissue that contains a few smooth muscle cells.
mucosa
mixing movements in the alimentary canal
segmentation
the movements that move food through the alimentary canal
peristalsis
attaches the tongue to the surface of the floor of the mouth and limits the posterior movements of the tongue
lingual frenulum
what part of the tooth is soft connective tissue that supprts the blood vessels and nerves
pulp
The ___________ has fibers which penetrate into the alveolar bone and aid in holding the teeth in place
periodontal membrane
_________ is secreted by stomach and is important for the absorption of Vitamin B12 in the _______.
Intrinsic factor; small intestine
One of the nutrients active in the synthesis of proteins and antibodies is
B6
The mineral required for the normal conduction of nerve impulses as well as ATP – ADP conversions is
potassium
The end products of protein digestion are ________, which are absorbed into ________ of villi
amino acids; capillaries

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