AP Art Unit 5 Part 3

Flashcard maker : Mike Bryan
Frontispiece of the Codex Mendoza
Viceroyalty of New Spain
1541-1542
Ink and color on paper
This book has the information about the Ancient Azetcs. They found their land based on an eagle, where the eagle stopped that’s where they would mark the spot to settle. The eagle stopped in a city with a cactus, modern day Mexico City
Eagle is very significant
Narrative: A battle between the Spanish and the indigenous people
This is like hieroglyphics
This book was sent back to Europe to record new culture from the Americas
Manuscript
a book that holds culture
II Gesu, including Triumph of the Name of Jesus ceiling fresco
Rome, Italy
Architect and Artists: Giacomo a Vignola (Architect), Giacomo della Porta (Facade), and Giovanni Battista Gaulli (Ceiling Fresco Artist)
Church: 16th Century
Facade: 1568-1584
Medium: Brick, marble, fresco, and stucco
11 Gesu:
Style: Chronologically and stylistically, II Gesu belongs to the late Renaissance, but its enormous influence on later church marks it as one of the significant moments for the development of Italian Baroque church architecture (especially the ceiling- great example of Baroque ornamentation- Renaissance churches are more simple and Protestant)
Interpretation: Mother church of Jesuit order- founded by St.Ignatius of Loyola as a center of the Jesuits. Church became St.Ignatius’ final resting place, making it an important shrine for pilgrims til this day
Significance: Plays a pivotal role in the Counter-Reformation: allowed the church to create shrines like the tomb of St.Ignatius and the over-the-top decoration that characterizes this period, which were designed to inspire awe at the magnificence of the Catholic Church. First truly Baroque Facade. Characteristics: vertical and horizontal lines and scrolls flanking its upper order became standard in the newly emerging Baroque era

Triumph of Name of Jesus:
Artist: Giovanni Battista Gaulli
Fresco and Stucco Figures 1676-1679
Medium: Ceiling fresco with painted figures on stucco extensions that project outside the painting’s frame (stucco sculptures and dimension)
Style: Banquo. Grandeur appeals to the senses, drama, and movement
Interpretation: Ultimate illusionistic Baroque ceiling of the period- gives illusion that it opens up to the heavens (salvation is attainable). Last Judgement painting
Significant: 1. Baroque techniques such as movement, bright colors, emotion, and the contrasting of light and dark serve as propaganda tool and help to differentiate from Catholic art
2. It uses art to incorporate drama, magnificence, and spirituality into daily prayer
3. Serves as a teaching tool in its focus on the contrast between sin and heresy in opposition to the veneration of the name of Jesus and the Catholic faith

Hunters in the Snow
Time Period: Northern Renaissance (16th Century)
1565 C.E.
Artist: Pieter Bruegel the Elder
Medium: Oil on wood
Location: Netherlands
Style: Norther Renaissance (Flemish Mannerism). Influenced by Virgil Georgics (29 B.C.E) by the notion of people doing daily routines
Interpretation: Communicates to winter and expresses a cold atmosphere. Hunters returning from a hunt with their dogs, seems as if the hunters didn’t catch much. It is a meager catch, only one rabbit hanging from the back of a hunter. Trudging through deep snow filled landscape. The hunters have a melancholic, unsuccessful, and tired feel but, going down the steep hill there is a \”playful\” winter
Significance: Coloration and composition
Series of paintings
Landscape more important than the figures
Everyday figures
Season scenes
Calling of Saint Matthew
Artist: Caravaggio
Rome, Italy
1597-1601
Italian Baroque
Oil on canvas
Made for the Contarelli Chapel
Style: Baroque Italian influence because of the way the people are dressed. Jesus’ hand gesture refers to Adam’s hand gesture in the Sistine Chapel
Interoperation: Everyone is reacting to Jesus saying that someone is going to betray him. Jesus calling Matthew to be one of his disciples
Significance: Take a naturalistic approach to Baroque. Caravaggio is known for a technique called tenebrous (a dramatic change in lighting). It shows movement of the hands
Henri IV Receives the Portrait of Marie de’ Medici from the Marie de’ Medici Cycle
Artist: Peter Paul Rubens
1622-1625
17th Century Netherlands
Oil on Canvas
Style: International Baroque style(dramatic motion/ emotion, dramatic color, overlapping, and extravagant setting) mostly Italian influences
Interpretation: Henri IV’s betrothal to Marie de Medici as a union ordained by the gods, because the Medici were an important Italian family (political)
Significance: Marie was tied to mythology to look more powerful and majestic than she really was in a series of paintings by the rubens (propagandistic)
Self-Portrait with Saski
Artist: Rembrandt Van Rijin
1636
Etching
Realism
No lines, outlines
Linear Drawing
Blurry/Foggy Edges
Light-energy
Flat-Loose
San Carlo Alle Quatro Fontane
Rome, Italy
Architect: Francess Borromini
1638-1646
Medium: Stone and Stucco
Roman Influence
Baroque Style: Grandeur (elaborate ornamentation) and Classicism
Baroque Architectural Characteristics:
1. Alternating convex and concave patterns in the facade (emphasis on the center of the facade with wave like forms that accentuate the entrance)
2. The elaborate and granular architecture represents the imperial or papal achievements of their patrons- representing their power and wealthy
Significance: It is the ideal representation of baroque architecture
Ecstasy of Saint Teresa, Coronaro Chapel
Artist: Gianlorenzo Bernini
1647-1652
Rome, italy
Medium: Sculpture-marble; Chapel- stucco and guilt
Interpretation: Saint Teresa’s diary where she tells her visions of God. These visions involved an angel descending with an arrow and plunging into her. On her left there is an angel holding a golden spear. In the iron tip, there is a fire that is being plunged into her heart multiple times. As the iron tip is being pulled out, she is overwhelmed with God’s love. This shows that she is consumed by God’s love.
Style: Bernini combines his love for theater with religion
Significance: It was created during the Counter Reformation, which was a time that northern Protestants were rebelling against the Catholic Church. Even though baroque art is meant to appeal to the rational mind, the Ecstasy of Saint Teresa’s primary focus is on the spiritual awakening
Angel with Arquebeus, Asiel Timor Dei
Artist: Master of Calamarca
17th Century
Oil on canvas
From Bolivia
Very European, European Influence
Depicting angels and Aristocrats
Las Meninas
Diego Belazquez
1656 C.E.
Oil on Canvas
Mexico
Head painter fit the King of Spain
Meninas are the helpers of the princess
Informal setting, genre scene for the royal family
Depicts social illusion
Realistic
Painterly: See brush strokes
Woman Holding a Balance
Artist: Johannes Vermeer
1664
Oil on Canvas
Analyzes light, and how you can paint truly realistically
Realism beyond standard, more scientific
The Palace at Versailles
Versailles,France
Architects: Louis Le Vau and Jules Hardouin- Mansart
1669 C.E.
Medium: Architecture- masonry stone, wood, iron, and gold leaf; Sculptures- Marble and Bronze; gardens
Commissioned by Louis 14, the sun king
A lot of gold (depicts positive and divine things) and exposed sun light (shinny)
Monumental scale
French Baroque
Significance: The formal aesthetic of the palace meant to glorify France and shower the power and greatness of the self-proclaimed \”Sun King\” to Louis XIV
Screen with the Siege of Belgrade and Hunting Scene
Circle of the Gonzalez Family
1697-1701
Tempera and resin on wood, shell inly
Mexican Art piece
Japanesse influence in Mexico
Philippines and Spain trade ivory, big screens and black lacquer
Japanese landscape and floral objects
Expensive
Owned by the Viceroy, the King
Battle Scene:
Chaotic scene Hasberg vs. Turks
Mexico in between the exchanges of Spain and Japan
Style: Spanish Colonial, shell in crusted Biombo (oil and mother of pearl)
Floral Motifs frame the battle scene
Political use- expression of the viceroy’s power

Hunting Scene:
Typically viewed by women

Tapestry of Medici, print- France

Black Laquere top and bottom finish was a trend in Mexico
Enconchado- shell inlay

Biombo
folding screen
The Virgin of Guadalupe
Miguel Gonzalez
1698 C.E.
Based on the Original Virgin of Guadalupe
Basilica of Guadalupe, Mexico City
16th Century C.E.
Oil on Canvas on wood, inlaid with mother-of-pearl
Virgin of Guadalupe,Juan Diego as angles how he was asked her to build a chapel. The pope denied his request, then she told him to get roses and take them to the pope. When Juan Diego went back the Virgin’s handprint was on his garment, and the Pope believed him.
She is known for having darker tones
The other Virgins have an almond shape, some have a same story and some do not
Fruits and Insects
Rachel Ruysch
Netherlands
1711 C.E.
Oil on Wood
In the Netherlands, artists specialized in types of paintings. Ruysch specialized in still life paintings.
Style:
1. Genre- still life painting, vatinas (vanity in latin). Paint the joys of life to be reminded that it is all temporary, we are mortal. Has a mortal message.
2. It has a Northern Renaissance influence, characteristic of containing heavy symbolism and deeper meanings in art pieces
3. Things that decay represent mortality
Interpretation: The subject is the autumn, it represents the harvest. Ruysch depicts fruits and vegetables that are harvested in the fall such as corn, squash, and chestnuts. The inclusion of wheat and grapes are symbolic of the sacrament of Eucharist (Northern Renaissance Influence). It also represents life in general: everything depends on something to sustain life
Significance: It has a detailed study of insects and fruits. A woman has presented this subject matter in a scientifically accurate way with emotional overtones.
Temporary Christian Status
Spaniard and Indian Produce a Mestizo
Attributed to Juan Rodriguez Juarez
1715 C.E.
Oil on canvas
Pinturas de Castas: Cast Paintings.
They tell you your social system. Indicates what generation mix your in
The Tete a Tete, from Marriage a la Mode
William Hograth
1743 C.E.
Oil on Canvas
Narrative: The woman gives up, the man looks drunk like he just had an affair. The dog is smelling the perfume of another woman
Baroque
Describes art that is bizarre and break rules of proportions established in the Renaissance
1600-1750
Characteristics of Italian and Spanish Baroque:
1. Obvious and dramatic motion/emotion
2. Draws viewer into the scene
3. Extravagant settings and detail that overlaps
4. Dramatic use of color and light
Themes:
Martyrdom, death, intensity, ecstasies, and conversions
Council of Trent
1545-1563
Ecumenical Council prompted by Protestant Reformation
What it Changed:
1. Guidelines for religious art
2. Clarity, realism, emotional drama, dogmatic instruction
3. Prohibited nudity
4. Fidelity to the Church
Counter Reformation
Characteristics:
1. Simpler, very direct, and clear composition
2. Aroused religious feeling
3. Stressed the image of one true Church
4. Catholic Dogmatic Images (crucifixion, and annunciation)
5. Guidelines for artwork/icons of Virgin Mary and Saint art should encourage faith and loyalty to the Church
Purpose:
To go against the art of the Protestant Reformation and attract Catholic audience
Adam and Eve
Albercht Durer
1504 C.E.
Engraving
Italian Influence
Print-easily distributed
Entombment of Christ
Jacopo da Pontormo
1525-1528 C.E.
Oil on wood
Mannerism
Hard and/or smooth pictorial surfaces
unusual color choices
Unsettling spatial solutions
Mixture of depth and flatness
Unclear narratives
Allegory of Law and Grace
Lucas Cranach the elder
1530 C.E.
Woodcut and ltterpress
Left Side:
Protest running from judgement day
Negative
Isenheim Altarpiece
Artist: Grunewald
Located: Germany
Medium: Oil on wood
1512-1516/ High Renaissance and Mannerisms in Northern Europe and Spain
Style: Had medieval influence depicting religious subject using hierarchy of scale and distortion or stylization of the bodies. Suffering and wants to communicate agony that comes from skin diseases. Devotional piece that has emotion, which is strange for Germany. Elaborate with different layers and 3D. Object of Devotion in an Isenheim hospital built by the brothers of Saint Anthony who was suffering from skin diseases
Interpretation: Gives religious scenes with emotional intensity. Themes of pain, illness, and death, as well as those of hope, comfort, and salvation
Significance: Not following standards of Northern renaissance. Doesn’t follow regional tradition. Grunewald uses emotion that Italians use. It has all these layers which is unusual.

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