AP Art History – Ch. 5 Greek Art

Flashcard maker : Matthew Carle
Attic Geometric krater, from Dipylon cemetery, Athens (740 B.C.) ~ Geometric Pottery

Made using engobe, open at base, grave marker, formal, many geometric patterns.
Attic Geometric krater, from Dipylon cemetery, Athens (740 B.C.) ~ Geometric Pottery

Made using engobe, open at base, grave marker, formal, many geometric patterns.

Corinthian black-figure amphora (625-600 B.C.) ~ Orientalizing Pottery

Elaborate animal decoration, influence form East (combined animal and human figures - lamassau, sphinx, siren).
Corinthian black-figure amphora (625-600 B.C.) ~ Orientalizing Pottery

Elaborate animal decoration, influence form East (combined animal and human figures – lamassau, sphinx, siren).

Ajax and Achilles Playing a Game, by EXEKIAS (540-530 B.C.) ~ Archaic Pottery

Black-figure, scene of mythology.
Ajax and Achilles Playing a Game, by EXEKIAS (540-530 B.C.) ~ Archaic Pottery

Black-figure, scene of mythology.

Dionysos in Sailboat, by EXEKIAS (540 B.C.) ~ Archaic Pottery

Black-figure, new observation of nature (sail blowing in wind).
Dionysos in Sailboat, by EXEKIAS (540 B.C.) ~ Archaic Pottery

Black-figure, new observation of nature (sail blowing in wind).

Ajax and Achilles Playing a Game, by ANDOKIDES PAINTER (525-520 B.C.) ~ Archaic Pottery

Red-figure (more detail than black-figure), Andokides Painter given credit of creating red-figure technique.
Ajax and Achilles Playing a Game, by ANDOKIDES PAINTER (525-520 B.C.) ~ Archaic Pottery

Red-figure (more detail than black-figure), Andokides Painter given credit of creating red-figure technique.

Classical Period (pottery) – \”white ground\” (red figures, white background)
(example of style of pottery from what period)
Doric and Ionic order
Temple of Aphaia at Aegina (500-490 B.C.)

Doric order.
Temple of Aphaia at Aegina (500-490 B.C.)

Doric order.

Temple of Hera II, from Paestum, Italy (460 B.C.)

Doric order, enasis columns.
Temple of Hera II, from Paestum, Italy (460 B.C.)

Doric order, enasis columns.

Detail of Corinthian Capital (same as Ionic except for capital)
Acropolis at Athens (447-438 B.C.) built under rule of PERICLES

Built for Athena, 4 main buildings: Parthenon, Propylaia, Erechtheion, Temple of Athena Nike; built during \”golden age of Greece\”, temples up high.

Parthenon, Athenian Acropolis

Doric order (Naos in Ionic order), built around statue of Athena, 8 columns in front instead of 6.
Parthenon, Athenian Acropolis

Doric order (Naos in Ionic order), built around statue of Athena, 8 columns in front instead of 6.

Erechtheion, Athenian Acropolis

Ionic order, engaged columns, caryatids, where competition between Poseidon and Athena took place.
Erechtheion, Athenian Acropolis

Ionic order, engaged columns, caryatids, where competition between Poseidon and Athena took place.

Temple of Athena Nike, Athenian Acropolis

Ionic order, Nike=Goddess of Victory (helper of Athena), 4 columns on each end.
Temple of Athena Nike, Athenian Acropolis

Ionic order, Nike=Goddess of Victory (helper of Athena), 4 columns on each end.

Tholos at Delphi (375 B.C.)

Doric order, Temple of the Oracle (women who got high on sulfur fumes and told future).
Tholos at Delphi (375 B.C.)

Doric order, Temple of the Oracle (women who got high on sulfur fumes and told future).

Hero and Centaur (750-730 B.C.) ~ Geometric Sculpture

Bronze, stiff (no movement).
Hero and Centaur (750-730 B.C.) ~ Geometric Sculpture

Bronze, stiff (no movement).

Archaic Period
Archaic smile (subject of sculpture is alive), somewhat abstract hair, formalized body still.
Late Archaic Period
Archaic smile (subject of sculpture is alive), better knowledge of human form.
Early Classical
No archaic smile, weight-shift pose (Contrapposto), idealization (not individual people, but ideals of what a perfect person would look like).
High Classical Period
Caryatids first seen, Phidian style.
Late Classical Period
War between Athens and Sparta; Naturalistic hair, reaching out into space, still idealized.
Hellenistic Period
Strong Greek influence throughout Mediterranean; Hellena=Greece; Climactic moment of action, emotional expressions, individual faces (as well as undulating forms).
Lady of Auxerre (Kore Figure) (650-625 B.C.) ~ Archaic Sculpture

Triangular shapes, abstract hair, clothed, feet together, large head.
Lady of Auxerre (Kore Figure) (650-625 B.C.) ~ Archaic Sculpture

Triangular shapes, abstract hair, clothed, feet together, large head.

Kouros (male figure), from Attica (600 B.C.) ~ Archaic Sculpture

Left foot forward, abstract hair, nude, large head, reminiscent of Egyptian and Near East statuaries.
Kouros (male figure), from Attica (600 B.C.) ~ Archaic Sculpture

Left foot forward, abstract hair, nude, large head, reminiscent of Egyptian and Near East statuaries.

Calf-bearer, from Athenian Acropolis (560 B.C.) ~ Archaic Sculpture

Left foot forward, calf=offering for God or Goddess, thin robe, head is a more realistic size, X-shape with arms and legs of calf.
Calf-bearer, from Athenian Acropolis (560 B.C.) ~ Archaic Sculpture

Left foot forward, calf=offering for God or Goddess, thin robe, head is a more realistic size, X-shape with arms and legs of calf.

Kroisos (530 B.C.) ~ Archaic Sculpture

Starting to understand bone and muscle structure (cheeks), still stiff form, more naturalistic (head is of proper size).
Kroisos (530 B.C.) ~ Archaic Sculpture

Starting to understand bone and muscle structure (cheeks), still stiff form, more naturalistic (head is of proper size).

Peplos Kore and Another Kore figure, from Athenian Acropolis (530 and 510 B.C.) ~ Archaic Sculpture

Colored with encaustic (melted wax), hair of both=more free-flowing, Peplos Kore-not as much form under clothes, Other Kore-more human form and realistic fall of drapery. (Other Kore-Orientalizing aspects).
Peplos Kore and Another Kore figure, from Athenian Acropolis (530 and 510 B.C.) ~ Archaic Sculpture

Colored with encaustic (melted wax), hair of both=more free-flowing, Peplos Kore-not as much form under clothes, Other Kore-more human form and realistic fall of drapery. (Other Kore-Orientalizing aspects).

Pediment, Temple of Artemis at Corfu (600-580 B.C.) ~ Late Archaic Sculpture

Figures changed scale
Pediment, Temple of Artemis at Corfu (600-580 B.C.) ~ Late Archaic Sculpture

Figures changed scale

Pediment, Temple of Aphaia at Aegina (500-490 B.C.) ~ Late Archaic Sculpture

Figures stayed in the same scale, more creative ways to fit into tapered parts of pediment.
Pediment, Temple of Aphaia at Aegina (500-490 B.C.) ~ Late Archaic Sculpture

Figures stayed in the same scale, more creative ways to fit into tapered parts of pediment.

Dying Warrior, Temple of Aphaia at Aegina (490-480 B.C.) ~ Late Archaic Sculpture

Posture is more natural of someone dying (except for the smile of course), detailed muscle definition, realistic human form.
Dying Warrior, Temple of Aphaia at Aegina (490-480 B.C.) ~ Late Archaic Sculpture

Posture is more natural of someone dying (except for the smile of course), detailed muscle definition, realistic human form.

East Pediment of Temple of Zeus at Olympia (470-456 B.C.) ~ Early Classical Sculpture

Symbolized 3 things: victory over Persians, sacred truce of Olympia, notion that humans have to act rationally; scene from famous chariot race (first Olympic games held at Temple of Zeus (476 B.C.) at Olympia).
East Pediment of Temple of Zeus at Olympia (470-456 B.C.) ~ Early Classical Sculpture

Symbolized 3 things: victory over Persians, sacred truce of Olympia, notion that humans have to act rationally; scene from famous chariot race (first Olympic games held at Temple of Zeus (476 B.C.) at Olympia).

\”Seer\” from East Pediment of Temple of Zeus at Olympia ~ Early Classical Sculpture

Emotional (knows what’s going to happen in race), very human, rare depiction of elderly.

Kritios Boy, from Athenian Acropolis (480 B.C.) ~ Early Classical Sculpture

First time contrapposto (weight-shift pose) seen
Kritios Boy, from Athenian Acropolis (480 B.C.) ~ Early Classical Sculpture

First time contrapposto (weight-shift pose) seen

Zeus (Poseidon?) (460-450 B.C.) ~ Early Classical Sculpture 

Reaching out into space, bronze, could be throwing lightning bolt or trident.
Zeus (Poseidon?) (460-450 B.C.) ~ Early Classical Sculpture

Reaching out into space, bronze, could be throwing lightning bolt or trident.

Discobolos (discus-thrower), by MYRON (450 B.C.) ~ Early Classical Sculpture

Emphasis on muscles, bones, veins.
Discobolos (discus-thrower), by MYRON (450 B.C.) ~ Early Classical Sculpture

Emphasis on muscles, bones, veins.

Doryphoros (spear-bearer), by POLYKLEITOS, from Sparta (450-440 B.C.) ~ Early Classical Sculpture

Exaggerated contrapposto, canon - ideal size and shape for human body and face.
Doryphoros (spear-bearer), by POLYKLEITOS, from Sparta (450-440 B.C.) ~ Early Classical Sculpture

Exaggerated contrapposto, canon – ideal size and shape for human body and face.

Athena Parthenos, by PHIDIAS, originally in Parthenon (438 B.C.) ~ High Classical Sculpture

Phidas hired by Pericles (Phidian Style), 38ft. tall, ivory and marble, holds Nike in hand.
Athena Parthenos, by PHIDIAS, originally in Parthenon (438 B.C.) ~ High Classical Sculpture

Phidas hired by Pericles (Phidian Style), 38ft. tall, ivory and marble, holds Nike in hand.

Dionysos, from East Pediment of Parthenon (438-432 B.C.) ~ High Classical Sculpture

Very realistic observation of reclining human form, fold in cloth are very fluid, Phidian Style.
Dionysos, from East Pediment of Parthenon (438-432 B.C.) ~ High Classical Sculpture

Very realistic observation of reclining human form, fold in cloth are very fluid, Phidian Style.

Three Goddesses, from East Pediment of Parthenon (438-432 B.C.) ~ High Classical Sculpture

Sometimes called 3 Fates, \”wet drapery\” – human figure distinguishable under cloth, Phidian Style.

Enasis
Buldging columns
Naos (Cella)
Room/chamber inside temple where cult statue of God of Goddess resides
Tholos
Round temple
Engaged Columns
Columns attached to wall in between them
Encaustic
What some sculptured were colored with. Made out of melted wax.
Idealization
A canon or ideal of beauty normally portrayed in sculpture
Contropposto
Weight-shift pose, spine makes S-shape
Façade
Front of entrance
Caryatids
Human figures used as columns
Stoa
A covered marketplace
Treasury of the Siphnians, from Delphi (530 B.C.) ~ High Classical Sculpture

Early example of use of caryatids, Phidian Style.
Treasury of the Siphnians, from Delphi (530 B.C.) ~ High Classical Sculpture

Early example of use of caryatids, Phidian Style.

South Porch of the Erechtheion (\”Porch of the Maidens\”), Athenian Acropolis (421-425 B.C.) ~ High Classical Sculpture

Modification – eliminated frieze to lighten up look (so caryatids didn’t look like they were carrying as much weight) – makes it look more harmonious, weight-shift pose in all figures, Phidian Style.

Hermes and the Infant Dionysos, by PRAXITELES, from Olympian (340 B.C.) ~ Late Classical Sculpture

Arm extending into space, idealized face, carefully observed body, increase in anatomical accuracy.
Hermes and the Infant Dionysos, by PRAXITELES, from Olympian (340 B.C.) ~ Late Classical Sculpture

Arm extending into space, idealized face, carefully observed body, increase in anatomical accuracy.

Apoxyomenos (scraper), by Lysippos (330 B.C.) ~ Late Classical Sculpture

Private moment, scraping mud off body after olympic mud wrestling, reaching out into space.
Apoxyomenos (scraper), by Lysippos (330 B.C.) ~ Late Classical Sculpture

Private moment, scraping mud off body after olympic mud wrestling, reaching out into space.

Altar of Zeus, from Pergamon (now in East Berlin along with the Ishtar Gate) (175 B.C.) ~ Hellenistic Sculpture

Sculptures along frieze, climactic action scenes.
Altar of Zeus, from Pergamon (now in East Berlin along with the Ishtar Gate) (175 B.C.) ~ Hellenistic Sculpture

Sculptures along frieze, climactic action scenes.

Athena battling Alkyoneos, detail from frieze of Altar of Zeus ~ Hellenistic Sculpture

Battle of Gods and Giants.
Athena battling Alkyoneos, detail from frieze of Altar of Zeus ~ Hellenistic Sculpture

Battle of Gods and Giants.

Dying Gaul, from Pergamon (230-220 B.C.) ~ Hellenistic Sculpture

Extreme detail of realism.
Dying Gaul, from Pergamon (230-220 B.C.) ~ Hellenistic Sculpture

Extreme detail of realism.

Aphrodite, Eros, and Pan (100 B.C.); Seated Boxer (100-50 B.C.); Old Market Woman (150-100 B.C.) ~ Hellenistic Sculpture

New variety of subjects not seen berfore
Aphrodite, Eros, and Pan (100 B.C.); Seated Boxer (100-50 B.C.); Old Market Woman (150-100 B.C.) ~ Hellenistic Sculpture

New variety of subjects not seen berfore

Laocoon and His Sons (Early 1st century A.D.) ~ Hellenistic Sculpture

Serpentine and undulating forms.
Laocoon and His Sons (Early 1st century A.D.) ~ Hellenistic Sculpture

Serpentine and undulating forms.

Head of Odysseus (Early 1st century A.D.) ~ Hellenistic Sculpture

Shaving cream hair, loosing a sea battle (climactic action), very emotional.
Head of Odysseus (Early 1st century A.D.) ~ Hellenistic Sculpture

Shaving cream hair, loosing a sea battle (climactic action), very emotional.

Stoa of Attalos II, from Agora, Athens (150 B.C.) 

Covered marketplace, columns mostly fluted (bottom portion smooth).
Stoa of Attalos II, from Agora, Athens (150 B.C.)

Covered marketplace, columns mostly fluted (bottom portion smooth).

Theater at Epidauros (350 B.C.)

Natural amplification, hear and see very well from almost everywhere, entrance and exit=efficient with isles and pathways.
Theater at Epidauros (350 B.C.)

Natural amplification, hear and see very well from almost everywhere, entrance and exit=efficient with isles and pathways.

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