Remains of organisms chemically changed into rock

Study of what happens to an organism’s remains after death. Describes circumstances for fossilization, how they got to where they are.

Where are fossils usually found?
In sedimentary or volcanic rock.

Fossils are most commonly found in
sedimentary rock (deposit of sediments)

Fossils can also be found in ash from
Volcanic activity

Sometimes vestiges of ____ can be found within fossils

Chemical segments of bone can also be

Paleontologists are concerned with
long expanses of time

It is necessary to place fossils in time and space to
fully understand their significance

What are the three eras of time in Earth’s history that describe the evolution of major life-forms: Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic.
Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic.

Pangaea was
The first supercontinent that eventually separated

The process of separation is often referred to as
Continental drift

Changes to earth and oceans occurred while mammals, primates, and humans were evolving

Primate evolution started in what era?

What did Bishop Ussher do?
Calculated the age of Earth bases on the Old Testament of the Bible.

Other scholars of the seventeenth century turned to ________information to date Earth

A branch of geology which studies rock layers (strata) and layering (stratification). It is primarily used in the study of sedimentary and layered olcanic rocks

Who hypothesized that the lower a stratum or layer, the older its age?
Danish physician Nicolaus Steno

Steno’s law of superposition paved the way for
Relative dating

What is relative age?
Defined by event to another. Older, new, same age, etc. Relative age is the comparison of time with two or more events.

Events or items at the bottom of a stratum are ___

Stratigraphic correlation
Matches up time in a large region.

Chemical dating
Fluorine dating measures levels of fluorine in bones to determine relative age

Biostratigraphic (Faunal) Dating:
Faunal dating compares different fossil forms and determines relative age

Cultural dating
Using changes in material culture (such as stone tools) to establish a chronology

Absolute (numerical) age
Determined through methods that result in a numerical time scale. (Determining something in absolute years)

What are some absolute (numerical) age methods
Dendrochronology, radiometric methods, non-radiometric methods.

Counts the rings of trees; each ring marks one year of growth

Radiocarbon dating
Measures the half-life of carbon isotopes in once living organisms that took on C-14. Can only be used on organic material– not rocks

What is a non-radiometric method that involves tree rings?

Radiocarbon dating is organic and measures
the absolute age

Radiopostassium dating
Absolute method and radiometric method that measures the potassium radioisotope in volcanic rock associated with fossils

Potassium has a long

Radiopostassium dating is used to date fossils older than
200,000 years

Amino acid dating
Absolute but non-radiometric method using the decay of protein molecules (razemizating, chemical decomposition)

Paleomagnetic dating
Non-radiometric absolute method that dates changes in the earth’s magnetic field to date rock up to 5 mya

Electron spin resonance
Non-radiometric absolute method that measures radioisotope buildup in fossils

Non-radiometric absolute method that measures amount of the sun’s energy in sediment, stone, or cermaic

Molecular clock
Measures change in DNA over time

A species accumulates genetic difference at a more or less ___ rate
constant rate

Development chronology
Shows when two species diverge and examines the timing of the splits in primate and human evolution

Molecular and anthropologists and paleoanthropologists find general consistency in ____

In addition to constructing time scales, researchers also try to reconstruct
ancient environments

Drives climate and is linked to biology and chemistry

Dramatic changes in temperature occurred around
6 mya

Important factors in the interpretation of the fossil record include
time, space, habitat, diet

Chemical analysis of bones and teeth can
reconstruct diets and habitats based on plants the animals ate. Different environments associated with different types of plants

Time, space, habitat, and diet are
important factors in the interpretation of the fossil record

Different plants have different types of
carbon photosynthesis

Soil and animal bones studies for
ratios of types of carbon

1st primates? Proprimates

Eocene/Euprimates/True Primates

Anthropoid, radiaton

Hominoid (ape) radiaton

Primates evolved from

First true primates are

Monkey-like anthropoids evolve from
prosimian level

Hominoid apes evolve from earlier
anthropoid level

Geological time periods (within Cenozoic)
Paleocene, eocene, oligocene, and miocene

Primate evolution levels include
Prosimian, anthropoid, hominoid, hominid

Arboreal hypothesis: Primate traits such as grasping hands and binocular vision were adaptions to
life in the trees

Arboreal hypothesis:
Moving from the ground to the trees caused
selective pressures that resulted in the ancestral primate

Visual predation hypothesis: Primate traits evolved in response to ____
preying on insects and other small creatures

Visual predation hypothesis: The exploitation of small prey resulted in
the primate suite of adaptions

Angiosperm radiation hypothesis: Proposed that primate traits were a response to the development of fruit-bearing angiosperm plants. T or F
Brooke has herpes

So true

The two plesiadapiforms include
Plesiadapis and Carpolestes

Paleocene fossils are a possible candidate for
the early primate ancestor

Plesidapiforms are found in
Western North America, Western Europe, Asia, and possibly Africa

Plesiadapiforms are potentially related to

First true primates (euprimateS) in Eocene epoch began as early as
56 mya

Adapids and omomyids are
widely diverse species, most with small body size

Adapids and omomyids may have evolved from
proprimates in Paleocene

The Oligocene was a period of
global cooling and widespread plant and animal extinctions

Most primate fossils from the Oligocene period came from the
Fayum region of Egypt

Aegyptopithecus was likely ancestral to the

Catarrhines are
Old World primates

There is evidence of ancestors to Old World Primates at ___

The origins of the platyrrhines are ____ clear T or F

The earliest known New World primate is
the Branisella from Bolivia

New World Higher Primates likely originate from
South American monkeys

Platyrrhines evolved from
an African anthropoid and either migrated across the Atlantic Ocean to South America or migrated south on land to Antarctica and then to South America

African and South American anthropoids did not evolve

African and South American anthropoids both originated in

There is no evidence of evolving from earlier anthropoids in North America and migrating to South America T or F

There is no evidence of evolving from an independent prosimian lineage in
South America

Anthropoids originating in Africa is supported by
DNA evidence

The Miocene deposits in Africa provide evidence for a group of primates called ______, which date to 22-17 mya.

Proconsulids contained a diverse number of taxa, with __ genera and ___ species
10 genera and 15 species

Proconsul is the best known
proconsulid species

Fossils records suggest that apes evolved in
Africa and spread to Europe and Asia

Dryopithecids were
Apes in Europe that were larger than earlier apes and resembled living apes in many traits

Sivapithecus is thought to be ancestral to _______ due to skull similarities

Newly found Khoratipithecus is more similar to orangutans than

Ape that is related to orangutans and dates back to 8-.5 mya. Thought to have stood nearly 3 m (9.8 ft) tall.

Branch of apes that are believed to be an evolutionary dead end. Existed from about 8-7 mya.

Oreopithecid fossils are primarily found in
coal mines in Italy.

Climate changes occured during this time in
Europe, Africa, and Asia

Tropical forest changed to
cooler, drier mixed woodlands and grasslands

Disappearance of fruit resources commonly exploited by the ____

Late Miocene apes of Europe may have
migrated back to Africa

A few survivors of the habitat disruption evolved into
modern apes

Late Miocene apes may be common ancestor to
African apes and hominids. But not many fossils, so link is unknown.

Gap in fossil record before first hominids is
about 6 million years ago

Two earliest humanlike ancestor groups include
Pre-australopithecines and australopithecines

Pre-australopithecines lived ________ ago
7 to 4 million years ago

Australopithecines lived ______ ago
4 to 1 million years ago

Homid can be best understood as having what two behaviors?
Bipedal locomotion and non-honing chewing

Took hominids several years to develop large brain, speech, and material culture T or F
large brain, speech, and material culture

Bipedal locomotion was a foundational behavior of
hominids (hominidae)

What is bipedal locomotion?
Walking on two libs (associated skeletal changes) Evolved before large brain size

What are the seven distinguishing characteristics associated with bipedalism?
Foramen magnum – bottom of skull (human head on top of body)

S-shaped spine (more stability)

Ilium short (pelvis bowl shaped-not elongated)

Legs longer (increased stride)

Knees angled inward (place feet beneath center of gravity)

Longitudinal foot arch (leverage and shock absorbing)

Big toe not opposable (support body – not grasping)

Nonhoning chewing is:
Lack of projecting canine and no diastema (gap between teeth). Nonsharpening chewing

Distinguishing anatomical complexes of hominidae include
Bipedal locomotion (acquiring and transporting food) and mastication, non-honing chewing (chewing food).

Fossil record and genetic information indicate hominids first appeared in
late Miocene (5 to 10 million years ago)

Most arguments regarding the evolution of hominids involve
bipedalism, which is the focal point in the study of human origins.

The three hypotheses involving how humans evolved include
Darwin’s Hunting
Patchy Forest

Charles Darwin’s Hunting Hypothesis argues:
Bipedalism developed to free the hands for carrying weapons. Intelligence increased; size of canines diminished. Tool production and use essential for development of human intelligence. New evidence shows this argument to not be the case.

Patchy Forest Hypothesis argues:
Human origins and bipedalism is related to the greater efficiency in moving on two limbs rather than four. Bipedalism arose in areas where forests were fragmented and food resources also became scattered.
As forest fragmented, bipedalism freed the hands to pick up food allowing for both tree and ground food resources to be exploited.

Provisioning Hypothesis
Freeing the hands was important in allowing males to assist females more efficiently in procuring food
“Provisioning” form of sexual competition among males for females.
Birth spacing would also be reduced, since females would have to move around less and would have access to greater food resources.
Hypothesis makes the argument for monogamous fathers.

Some scientists see little sexual dimorphism in early hominids. Males were more cooperative and less competitive. Could include pair bonding. Pattern necessary for ______

Only in the last few years that hominids older than ____ mya have been discovered
4 mya

Pre-australopithecines fossils were found in
North-central and east Africa.

The pre-australopithecines fill the gap between ______ apes and the first ______
Late miocene apes and the first hominids

The Pre-australopithecines (first hominds) were _____ in many ways

The Pre-australopithecines were
the first recognizable ancestors of lineage leading to humans

Sahelanthropous tchadensis
Genera of Pre-australopithecines that existed 7 to 6 million years ago in Central Africa. Brain size (cranial capacity) of 350 cc. Foramen magnum indicative of likely bipedality. Had nonhoning chewing complex and was close to pongid/hominid divergence. This genera was only found recently in 2001.

Orrorin tugenensis
Genera of Pre-australopithecines that existed 6 million years ago in east Africa near Lake Turkana. Femur indicative of bipedalism. Curved hand phalanx, suggesting time spent in trees. Contained Nonhoning chewing complex and lived in a forest.

Ardipithecus kadabba and ardipithecus ramidus
Generea of pre-australopithecines that existed 5.8 to 4.4 million years ago in east Africa at Aramis Ethiopia. Partial skeleton, other bones, and teeth. Variation in tooth wear; possessed thin enamel. Lived in a forest. Time spent on ground and in trees. Huge assemblage of fossils means this species is well understood, comparatively.

The australopithecines
Existed 4 to 1 million years ago. Hundred of fossils have been found, with nine or more species from one genus. Variation mostly in size and robusticity. Small and gracile to large and robust. Small brains. Small canines and large premolars and molars. Later australopithecines have very large face, jaws, and teeth.

Australopithecus Anamensis
Existed 4 million years ago and is the oldest australopithecine. From east africa, specifically, Kenya and Ethiopia. Physically somewhat similar to ardipithecus. Lived in woodland environments.

Australopithecus afarensis
Genera of Australopithecus that existed 3.6 to 3 million years ago in East Africa. Best known australopithecine. Lucy (type of specimen). Hadar (Ethiopia). Very complete… 40% of her skeleton recovered. Lucy stoold slightly more than one meter or 3.5 feet. Males stand about 5-5.5 feet. Bipedal, may have had stride similar to modern humans. Long arms, curved finger bones, suggesting tree use. Cranial capacity of 430 cc. Laetoli. East Africa, Ethiopia. A. Aferensis fossils. Includes footprints of three hominids in volcanic ash. Afarensis lived in varied habitats. Forest, woodlands, and open country. Successfully adapting to and exploiting new habitats. More diverse diet than predecessors.

Australopithecus (Kenyanthropus) playtops
Existed 3.5 million years ago in East Africa. Lake Turkana, Kenya. Woodland habitat. Flat face with some primitive characteristics

Two lineages of hominid evolution emerge from the first earlier more primitive australopithecines and reflect multiple adaptions. One adaptive pattern associated with (leads to) origin and evolution of genus Homo. Other adaptive patterns leads to several later australopithecine lineages in East and South Africa which are evolutionary ____ ___
dead ends

Australopithecus garhi
Existed 2.5 million years ago in East Africa, Ethiopia. Bones, teeth, partial skeleton, and a skull. Cranial capacity of 450 cc. More humanlike humerus-to-femur ratio. Longer legs (femur), less arboreal than earlier australopithecines. Lived on lakeshore, probable ancestor of Homo. Based on features and chronological position.

What were the primitive stone tools in East Africa found by paleoanthropologists named?
“Oldowan”, by Louis and Mary Leakey working at Olduvai Gorge. Thought to have been made by larger-brained early Homo.

Garhi stone tools
mammal bones with cutmarks, leading to conclusion that A. garhi used stone tools earlier to process food. Cut meat off bone and get at marrow. Stone tools were long associated with meat consumption. Bone tools were also used for digging in the ground. Australopithecus were the first hominids to make stone tools.

Australopithecus aethiopicus
Early robust species of East Africa that existed 2.5 million years ago.

Australopithecus boisei
A later robust species of East Africa that existed 2.3 to 1.2 million years ago.

The Robust Australopithecines of East Africa
Compared with earlier australopithecines. Larger back teeth, sagittal crest is visually striking. Massive attachment area on skull for chewing muscles. Dietary focus on harder foods. Requiring heavy chewing. Robust australopithecines ended before 1 million years ago in East Africa.

Australopithecines robustus
Found in South Africa and dated back 2 million years ago. Found in cave sites in South Africa (unlike rift valley of East Africa). Large premolars and molars, large face and well-developed sagittal crest. Similar to East African robust forms. Indicates widespread adaption to chewing hard foods and eating significant amounts of low-quality foods.

Australopithecines sediba
Found in Cave site Malapa, South Africa and existed 2 o 1.5 million years ago. Had relatively small face, jaws, and teeth. Had small body and long arms like those of australopithecines. Broad pelvis and overall shape are more Homo-like. Presence of Homo-like features suggest a place in the ancestry of genus Homo.

Evolution of the Australopithecines
Went extinct in East Africa and South Africa by 1.0 million years ago. Lineage leading to Homo had increasing flexible and generalized diet. Later robust australopithecines had increasing focus on narrower range of food. Diet had role in extinction. Australopithecine brains show very little increase in size.

Earliest hominids began to evolve from late Miocene era continuing from 6 to 1 million years ago through the Pilocene and in the Pleistocene. Diverse hominids appearing had increasingly
specialized diets

Cranial morphology reflected diet (including teeth, jaw, skull) No appreciable increase in brain and body size. Evolution focused on _____
mastication (chewing)

New Homind
A new hominid habilis appears. A gracile hominid with larger brain and reduced chewing complex. Evolved from an australopithecine…possibly A. garhi.

Eons, era, periods, and epochs are
Geological time period (but theyre based on life forms)

The study of what happens to an organism’s remains after death is called

Pangea was an early____

______ is the process of matching strata from several sites using chemical, physical, and other properties
Stratigraphic correlation

Fluorine dating measures a ___ in bones

Biostratigraphy is ____

A radiometric method of dating
Carbon 14

The absolute dating method that involves counting the annual rings visible in the cross-section of a tree is called

Amino acid, paleomagnetic, electron spin resonance, and thermoluminescence are examples of ______ dating methods
Non radiometric absolute

Paleomagnetic dating works because the earth’s magnetic field

The ‘molecular clock” measures changes in ___ over time`

A diagram (family tree) that proposes hypothetical ancestor-descendant relationships between species is a
Phlogeny (I think)

Chemical analysis of teeth provides
To reconstruct diets and habitats

In the sequence of primate evolution, the anthropoids were _____ than the homioids
Earlier (older)

Which of the following is not one of the main hypotheses to explain primate origins?
Aquatic ape

Which of the following is not a typical primate trait?
Sideays facing eyes (Know the other 3 reasons)

The earliest primates were becoming bipedal as early as 60 millions years ago because of a combination of environmental and cultural influences
False-bipedal about 6 million years ago and no cultural influence

The early primate ancestors (Paleocene fossils) such as the Plesiadapiforms are found in
North America and Europe

Adapids and Omomyids are true primates
True (prosimians)

The Fayum region is known for
Primates including early anthropoids in Egypt (I think)


Most evidence shows New World Monkeys (platyrrhines) evolved from ____
African anthropoids

Hominiouds (apes) radiated and dominated the primate world during the

Proconsul is a well-known fossil genera of ____

Sivapithecus is widely recognized as an ancestral member of which ape lineage?

Apes became extinct in southern Europe during the late Miocene, probably as a result of
Climate Change

Modern apes are descended from survivors of Miocene apes

Which of the following statements is true of hominid evolution?
Bipedal locomotion preceded the appearance of large brains

Dentally, which of the following best describes the earliest hominids?
They had small, non-projecting canines

Hypothesis about bipedal locomotion focusing on efficient movement on two limbs
Patchy forest

Fossil remains of the pre-australopithecines are found in what part of the world
In Africa only

Sahelantrhoupus tchadensis was founded in ______ Africa
Central Africa (Also the earliest/oldest that was found)

The oldest known possibly bipedal hominid genus is

Ardipithecus kaddaba and ramidus were found at _____
Aramis and Ethiopia (East Africa)

The Australopithecines were represented by hundreds of fossils and included at least nine ____

Area where radiometric dating of volcanic rock would work best
East African Great Rift Valley

Australopithecus anamnesis is considered
One of the earlier Australopists (C.)

The Laetoli site, in Tanzania, is most famous for
Preserving fossil hominid footprints

The fossil nicknamed “Lucy” is a member of which species?
Australopithecus afarenis

Known for possibly the first maker of stone tools

The oldest recognizable artifacts are simply stone tools dating to about 2.6 mya and are referred to as the _____.
Oldowan complex

Sagittal crest results from

Some australopithecines are referred to as “robust” because
They had bigger teeth and jaws (molar teeth and chewing muscles)

In South Africa, who of the following is described the first specimen of Australopithecus ever discovered
Raymond Dart

Australopithecus sediba has some features suggestive of ancestry of the genus Homo

The evolution of the earliest hominids shows more change in ____
Facial Structure

Radiopotassium dating:
Absolute method measures the potassium radioisotope in volcanic rock associated with fossils

Has a long half-life and is used to date fossils older than 200,000 years

Radiocarbon dating
Measures the half-life of carbon isotopes in once living organisms that took on C-14

Radiocarbon dating dates
organic material, not rocks

What dating method has to do with trees?

Paleocene era included
Proprimates. 1st primates?