ant 230 uky chapter 1 terms

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savanna
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a large flat grassland with scattered trees and shrubs found in many regions of the world with dry and warm to hot climates
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hominins
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colloquial term for members of the evolutionary group that includes modern humans and now-extinct bipedal relatives (3.7 million years ago)
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species
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a group of organisms that can interbred to produce fertile offspring. Members of one _______ are reproductively isolated from members of all other _______ (they cannot mate with them to produce fertile offspring)
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bipedally
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on two feet; walking habitually on two legs (hominins)
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anthropology
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the field of inquiry that studies human culture and evolutionary aspects of human biology; includes cultural anthropology, archeology, linguistics, and physical/biological
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primates
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members of the mammalian order Primates, which includes lemurs, lorises, tarsiers, monkeys, apes, and humans
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evolution
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a change in the genetic structure of a population. The term is also frequently used to refer to the appearance of a new species
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adaptation
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an anatomical, physiological, or behavioral response of organisms or populations to the environment result from evolutionary change (natural selection)
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genetic
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having to do with the study of gene structure and action and the patterns of inheritance of traits from parent to offspring. Genetic mechanisms are the foundation for evolutionary change
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macroevolution
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some genetic changes in populations do result in the appearance of a new species, especially when those populations are isolated from one another
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microevolution
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genetic alterations within populations; though it may not lead to speciation, it does cause populations of a species to differ from one another in the frequency of certain traits
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what is the underlying theme?
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to understand how humans are linked to all other life on earth. humans are biologically connected to all life
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behavior
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anything organisms do that involves action in response to internal or external stimuli; the response of an individual, group, or species to its environment. Such responses may or may not be deliberate, and they aren’t necessarily the result of conscious decision making (which is absent in single-celled organisms, insects, and many other species)
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continuum
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a set of relationships in which all components fall along a single integrated spectrum. All life reflects a single biological _________
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culture
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behavioral aspects of human adaptation, including technology, traditions, language, religion, marriage patterns, and social roles a set of learned behaviors transmitted from one generation to the next by nonbiological means
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worldview
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general cultural orientation or perspective shared by members of a society
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t/f culture is genetically passed
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false, it is a learned process.(nonbiological) we aren’t born with innate knowledge that leads us to behave in ways appropriate to our own culture
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t/f the predisposition for culture is perhaps the most critical component of human evolutionary history
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true inherited from early hominin
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t/f overtime culture has become more influential
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true, impacted biological makeup in turn, aspects of biology influenced cultural practices
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biocultural evolution
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the mutual, interactive evolution of human biology and culture; the concept that biology makes culture possible and that developing culture further influences the direction of biological evolution; a basic concept in understanding the unique components of human evolution humans are result of long-term interactions between biology and culture we call these interactions ___________ ___________.
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examples of biocultural evolution TODAY
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-Important in regard to health and disease -air pollution and chemicals have increased cancer and respiratory diseases -airplanes make travel very convenient and fast -but we forget we are not the only species that can do this -millions of disease fighting organisms travel on plane -diseases spread, example of this is Ebola in 2014. -human activities have also changed patterns of infectious diseases (malaria, tuberculous, influenza) -from domestication of animals (pigs, chickens, cattle), we expose ourselves to diseases they carry -through this contact we also changed genetic makeup of disease-causing microorganisms. -example of this is the H1N1 swine flu in 2009 (affected 3 things: humans, birds, pigs)
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t/f Humans have influenced the development and spread of infectious disease
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true! but we still don’t know the many ways that changes in infectious disease patterns are affecting human biology and behavior.
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4 subfields on Anthropology
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cultural (or social) linguistic archaelogical physical/biological -all 4 fields approach concerns all aspects of humanity across space and time
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applied anthropology
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the practical application of anthropological and archaeological theories and techniques. (i.e. working in public health sector)
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cultural anthropology
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the study of patterns of belief and behavior found in modern and historical cultures
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ethnographies
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detailed descriptive studies of human societies. In cultural anthropology, they are traditionally the study of a non-Western society
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linguistic anthropology
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the study of human speech and language, including the origins of language in general as well as specific languages
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archaeology
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study of earlier cultures by anthropologists who specialize in the scientific recovery, analysis, and interpretation of the material remains of past societies
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artifacts
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objects or materials made or modified for use by hominins. the earliest artifacts are usually tools made of stone or bone.
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physical anthropology
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the study of human biology within the framework of evolution with an emphasis on the interaction between biology and culture
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paleoanthropology
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today this is a major subfield of physical anthropology the interdisciplinary approach to the study of earlier hominins–their chronology, physical structure, archaeological remains, habitats, and so on the study of anatomical and behavioral human evolution as revealed in the fossil record
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the origins of physical anthropology can be traced into 2 principal areas of interest in the 19th century european and american scholars (also called naturalists). what are the 2 areas? THEN
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origins of modern species and human variation
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sparks of interest in biological change over time were fueled into flames by the publication of what author and what book?
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charles darwin On the Origin of Species 1859
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why are physical anthropologists concerned with human variation? TODAY
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-Because of possible adaptive significance. -want to identify the factors that have produced not only visible physical variation but also genetic variation. -trails evolved as biological adaptations to different environmental conditions (sunlight, altitude, disease) and geographical isolation.
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molecular anthropologists
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use cutting-edge technologies to investigate evolutionary relationships between human populations as well as between humans and nonhuman primates
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DNA
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the double-stranded molecule that contains the genetic code a main component of chromosomes
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Osteology
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the study of skeletal material focuses on the interpretation of the skeletal remains from archaeological sites, skeletal anatomy, bone physiology, and growth and development. Some of the same techniques are used in paleoanthropology to study early hominins
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bioarchaeology
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the study of skeletal remains from archaeological contexts
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paleopathologists study and investigate what?
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investiage prevalence of certain infectious diseases (syphillis and tuberculosis), nutritional deficiencies and many other conditions that leave evidence in bones and teeth.
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paleopathologists
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-study of disease and trauma in ancient skeletal populations -the branch of osteology that studies the evidence of disease and injury in human skeletal remains from archaeological sites
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forensic anthropologists
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-an applied anthropological approach dealing with legal matters -work with coroners and others in identifying and analyzing human remains -examples of this are seen in the show Bones and CSI
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primatology
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the study of the biology and behavior of nonhuman primates
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applied anthropology
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the practical use of anthropological theories and methods outside the academic setting
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science
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a body of knowledge gained through observation and experimentation
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hypothesis
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provisional explanations of phenomenia explain what has to be observed require verification through testing
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empirical
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replying on experiment or observation
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scientific method
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an approach to research whereby a problem is identified, a hypothesis (provisional explanation) is stated, and that hypothesis is tested by collecting and analyzing data
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data
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facts from which conclusions can be drawn; scientific information
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quantitatively
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pertaining to measurements of quantity and including such properties such as size, number and capacity. can be expressed numerically and can be tested statistically
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theory
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a broad statement of scientific relationships or underlying principles that has been substantially verified through the testing of hypotheses
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scientific testing
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the precise repetition of an experiment or expansion of observed data to provide verification; the procedure by which hypotheses and theories are verified, modified, or discarded
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quadrupedal
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using all 4 limbs to support the body during locomotion
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ethnocentric
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pitfalls, bias viewing other cultures from the inherently biased perspective of one’s own culture often results in other cultures being seen as inferior to one’s one
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relativistic
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viewing entities as they relate to something else. Cultural _______ is the view that cultures have merits within their own historical and environmental contexts understanding of global perspective and concerns
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the anthropological perspective
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most important benefit from textbook is a wider appreciation of the human experience to understand human beings and how we came to be we must broaden our viewpoint through both time and space. all branches of anthropology seek this

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