Ancient World Chapter 2

Flashcard maker : Brenda Gannon
Western civilization can be said to have begun in
Greece
The epic poem, Iliad, which recounts the prowess and anger of Achilles, was composed by
Homer
The largest Minoan place on the island of Crete was
Knossos
Minoan Civilization
Had artists who often painted frescoes featuring bulls and athletes
The epics of Homer are set in the period of Greek history called the
Greek Dark Ages
Mycenaean Civilization
1. Was centered around places and warrior kings
2. Was depicted many years later in the Homeric epics
3. Was an ancestor of later Greek civilization
What was a result of the widespread violence and movement of peoples in the eastern Mediterranean around 1200 B.C.?
1. Egyptian Empire besieged and weakened
2. The Trojan War and destruction of Troy
3. The decline of Mycenaean civilization and invasion of Dorian Greeks
The Greek \”Dark Age\” commenced when
The Mycenaean culture collapsed
A major event at the end of the Greek \”Dark Age\” and the beginning of Classic Greek Civilization was
The spread of Greek colonies over much of the shoreline of the Mediterranean and the Black Sea
Although the Greeks learned many things from earlier civilizations, the philosopher Plato said
Greeks turned those things into something finer
The Greek gods
1. Resembled humans
2. Shared the same virtues/defects as mankind
3. Were immortal
The oracle at Delphi was presided over by the god
Apollo
The Greek invention of philosophy, or the search for knowledge, involved the idea that
The cosmos was orderly, accessible to human reason, and based on natural laws
Name three early Greek philosophers of scientists
1. Pytagoras
2. Democritus
3. Thales
Tyrant was the name given to
A ruler who uses physical force rather then hereditary right or constitutional means to seize power
The normal term used to characterize the Greek city-state is
Polis
Respectable Athenian women would
Tend to stay inside, presiding over spinning and weaving
Bisexual relationships were common in Greek society because
Male/male relationships were thought to offer the highest possibilities for love and intellectual development
Purpose of Solon’s reforms was to
Open participation in government to the new commercial middle-class
The Greek political reformer Cleisthenes
Established an Athenian constitution with many democratic features
The Greek Polis known for its emphasis on military training was
Sparta
Sparta developed a strict military state and society in order to
Keep the conquered people, or helots, in subjection and slavery
Spartan society
Gave women considerably more public freedom than Athens gave its women, including athletic training
Aspects of the olympic games
1. They were pan-Hellenic, or open to Greeks from any polis
2. They were a religious festival in honor of Zeus
3. Victorious athletes were richly rewarded with honor and free meals
What Persian War battle was a Persian, rather than Greek, victory?
Thermopylae
The great historian of the Persian wars, justifiably known as the Father of history, was
Herodotus
The Delian League, a maritime union organized to defend the Aegan against Perisa, became converted into a virtual empire for the benefit of
Athens
What applies to the Perciles, the architect of Athens’ Golden Age?
1. Elected chief strategos
2. Provided the leadership for the building of Acropolis
3. Advocated the supremacy of Athens over members of the Delian league
The major leader of Athenian democracy after the Persian Wars was
Pericles
Greek plays dealt with the following themes:
1. Relationship of men to the gods
2. Relationships between rulers and their subjects
3. The consequences of hubris, or arrogance and pride
The Theban Plays of Sophocles are an illustration that the great Athenian playwrights
Tried to explore complex moral problems in their plays
According to Thucydides, the Peloponnesian War was caused by
Sparta’s fear of Athens’ growing power
The historian who wrote about the Peloponnesian War was
Thycidides
Name advantages for Athens in the war with Sparta
1. Naval control of the Aegan
2. Long walls protecting harbor and city
3. Wealth and supplies from sea-borne trade
Alcibiades
Has been described as an Athenian hero, military genius, and traitor
Socrates believed that
True wisdom lies in the endless search for knowledge
The Greek philosopher who argued that the world of the senses was only a shadow of ultimate reality was
Plato
Unlike Plato, Aristotle
Argued that one had to observe and study actual entities rather than seek out ideal forms

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