Anatomy and Physiology I

Flashcard maker : Bernice Cooper
the study of structure
the study of function
feeling a structure with the hands, such as palpating a swollen lymph node
listening to the natural sounds made by the body such as heart and lung sounds
the examiner taps on the body, feels for abnormal resistance, and listens to the emitted sound for signs of abnormalities such as pockets of fluid or air
carefully cutting and separating tissues to reveal their relationships
a dead human body
Comparative Anatomy
the study of multiple species in order to examine similarities and differences and analyze evolutionary trends
Exploratory Surgery
opening the body and taking a look inside to see what was wrong and what could be done about it
Medical Imaging Techniques
methods of viewing the inside of the body without surgery
the branch of medicine concerned with imaging
Gross Anatomy
structure that can be seen with the naked eye, visible without magnification
Histology (Microscopic Anatomy)
taking tissue specimens, thinly slice and stain them, and observe them under the microscope
microscopic examination of tissues for signs of disease
study of the structure and function of individual cells
refers to fine detail, down to the molecular level, revealed by the electron microscope
simply looking at the body’s appearance, as performing a physical examination or making a clinical diagnosis from surface appearance
Comparative Physiology
study of how different species have solved problems of life such as water balance, respiration, and reproduction
What is the difference between anatomy and physiology? How do these two sciences support each other?
Anatomy: study of structure
Physiology: study of form
“unity of form and function”
physiology lends meaning to anatomy, and anatomy is what makes physiology possible
Listening to a patient for a heart murmur
Studying the microscopic structure of the liver
Microscopically examining the liver tissue for signs of hepatitis
Learning the blood vessels of a cadaver
Performing a breast self-examination
“father of medicine”
first philosophers to write about anatomy and physiology
Claudius Galen
physician to the Roman gladiators, wrote the most influential medical textbook of the ancient era
Andreas Vesalius (Anatomy)
first professor to come down from the cathedra and doing the dissection himself– Gray’s Anatomy
William Harvey (Physiology)
first known to describe completely and in detail the systematic circulation and properties of blood being pumped to the brain and body by the heart
Jewish physician
“The Galen of Islam”
Michael Servetus
he and Harvey were the first to realize that blood must circulate continuously around the body
Robert Hooke
designed the compound microscope
Antony van Leeuwenhoek
invented a simple microscope, originally for the purpose of examining the weave of fabrics
Surface Anatomy
structure visible without dissection; external anatomy
Radiologic Anatomy
internal structure made visible by X-ray, MRI, and other technological methods
Systematic Anatomy
study of individual organ systems
Regional Anatomy
study of the relationships of organs of multiple systems within a given body region
Computed Tomography (CT) Scan
has virtually eliminated exploratory surgery; sharp 3-D image with little overlap; used to identify tumors, aneurysms, cerebral hemorrhages, kidney stones, and other abnormalities
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
“see” clearly through the skull and spinal column to produce images of the nervous tissue; disadvantage is it requires patient to lay still for up to 45 minutes to scan one region
Sex in the MRI
Schultz, WW, P van Andel, I Sabelis and E Mooyar.
Magnetic resonance imaging of male and female genitals during coitus and female sexual response
Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scan
used to assess the metabolic state of a tissue and distinguish which tissues are most active at a given moment
Sonography (Ultrasound)
used obstetrics (fetal ultrasound) and echocardiogram (motion of the heart wall and valves and blood flow through the heart chambers
Hypothetico-Deductive Method
1. question about nature
2. hypothesis
3. an if-then deduction
4. experimental design (control group, placebo, double-blind method)
5. results (data)
6. statistical tests (significance of data)
7. peer review
8. publication
9. corroboration (by labs replicating the study)
item of information verifiable by independent observers
verbal or mathematical description of predictable events in nature
explanatory statement or set of statements that summarizes what we know so far about how something works
a change in genetic composition of a population over time
Natural Selection
individuals having hereditary advantages over their competition enabling them to produce more offspring, passing those traits to the next generation
Selection Pressures
forces of nature that favor the reproductive success of some individuals over others
features of anatomy, physiology, or behavior that evolve in response to selection pressures
Walter Cannon
homeostasis and fight or flight
stable internal environment even when the environment around us is changing
hypothalamic thermostat–neurons that regulate temperature
keeping warm blood deeper in the body
Negative Feedback Loop
1. a receptor detects change in the body
2. an integrating center processes this information and “makes a decision” on how to respond
3. sends a signal to an effector that carries out the response
4. the response reverses the change that was originally detected, completing the negative feedback loop
Positive Feedback in Childbirth
detects a change and intensifies it; drives body further away from homeostasis stability
1. cervical stretching
2. signal via spinal cord to brain
3. oxytocin secretion
4. uterine (labor) contraction
5. more cervical stretching
Positive Feedback in Fever
above a certain point, body generates heat faster than it can get rid of it– heat raises metabolic rate; elevated metabolic rate generates more heat
Gradients and Flow
Pressure: blood flow and air flow
Concentration: chemical diffusion
Electrochemical: Ion flow (nerve, muscle)
Thermal: heat exchange (testes, skin, brain)
Theodor Schwann
concluded that all organisms were composed of cells–became the first tenant of cell theory
In what way did the followers of Galen disregard his advice? How does Galen’s advice apply to you and this book?
his followers taught straight from his book and didn’t question his authority; his advice applies to me and this book because I may observe something in another way than how Saladin did
Describe two ways in which Vesalius improved medical education and set standards that remain relevant today
He pointed out that Galen’s book was wrong and wrote his own atlas of anatomy and has been handed down to us by Gray’s Anatomy and the vividly illustrated atlases and textbooks of today
How is our concept of human form and function today affected by inventors from the seventeenth to the nineteenth century?
They helped replace superstition with an appreciation of natural law and they bridged chasm between mystery and medication. Without this intellectual revolution, those who followed could not have conceived of the right questions to ask, much less a method for answering them.
Francis Bacon (England) and Rene Descartes (France)
envisioned science as a far greater, systematic enterprise with enormous possibilities for human health and welfare–credited with putting science on the path to modernity by inventing new habits of scientific thought (scientific method)
Scientific Method
refers less to observational procedures than to certain habits of disciplined creativity, careful observation, logical thinking, and honest analysis of one’s observations and conclusions
Inductive Method
first prescribed by Bacon, a process of making numerous observations until one feels confident drawing generalizations and predictions from them
that if we claim something is scientifically true, we must be able to specify what evidence it would take to prove it wrong
Psychosomatic Effects
effects of the subject’s state of mind on his or her physiology
Statistical Tests
can be applied to the date
Peer review
a critical evaluation by other experts in that field on a submission of results for publication
Law of complementary base pairing
Charles Darwin
most influential biologist who ever lived– natural selection
features of anatomy, physiology, and behavior that have evolved in response to these selection pressures and enable the organism to cope with challenges of its environment
an animal species or strain selected for research on a particular problem
(tree top) habitat probably afforded greater safety from predators, less competition, and rich food supply of leaves, fruit, insects, and lizards
made the hands able to grasp branches by encircling them with the thumb and fingers
(depth perception) provided better hand-eye coordination in catching and manipulating prey, with the added advantage of making it easier to judge distances
walking on two legs
genus in which most of the oldest bipedal primates are classified
Homo sapiens
our own species, originated in Africa about 200,000 years ago and is the sole surviving hominid species
Evolutionary Medicine
analyzes how human disease and dysfunctions can be traced to differences between the artificial environment in which we now live, and the prehistoric environment to which Homo sapiens was biologically adapted
single, complete individual
Organ System
group of organs with a unique collective function, such as circulation, respiration, or digestion
structure composed of two or more tissue types that work together to carry out a particular function
a mass of similar cells and cell products that forms a discrete region of an organ and performs a specific function
the smallest units of an organism that carry out all basic functions of life
microscopic structures in a cell that carry out its individual functions
a particle composed of at least two atoms
largest molecules such as proteins, fats, and DNA
theory that a large, complex system such as the human body can be understood by studying its simpler components
complementary theory that are “emergent properties” of the whole organism that can’t be predicted from the properties of its separate parts–human beings are more than the sum of their parts
living things exhibit a far higher level of organization than the nonliving world around them
Cellular Composition
living matter is always compartmentalized into one or more cells
the sum of all this internal chemical change
relatively complex molecules are synthesized from smaller ones
relatively complex molecules are broken down into simper ones
separation of wastes from the tissues and their elimination from the body
Responsiveness, irritability, or excitability
the ability of organisms to sense and react to stimuli (changes in their environment)
differentiation- transformation of cells with no specialized function into cells that are committed to a particular task
growth- an increase in size
all living organisms can produce copies of themselves, thus passing their genes onto their offspring
changes in DNA structure
Claude Bernard
observed that the internal conditions of the body remain quite constant even when external conditions vary greatly
Dynamic equilibrium
balanced change
Set Point
average value for a given variable
the widening of blood vessels to lose heat
structure that senses change in the body
Integrating (control) center
processes this information, relates it to other information, and “makes a decision”
cell or organ that catties out the final corrective action
Down the gradient
when matter or energy moves from higher to lower
Up the gradient
when matter or energy moves from lower to higher
difference in chemical concentration, electrical charge, physical pressure, temperature, or other variable between one point to the other
Pressure gradient
high pressure point to low pressure point
Concentration gradient
where chemicals flow
Electrical gradient
where charged particles flow
Thermal gradient
where heat flows
afford little clue as to what a structure or condition is
Cell theory
all structure and function result from the activity of cells
Hierarchy of complexity
human structure can be viewed as a series of levels of complexity

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