American History Chapter 21

Flashcard maker : Marie Florence
Jim Crow laws
laws that aimed at separating the races
3 reasons WWII was important for civil rights
1. demand for soldiers created a shortage of workers
2. one million African Americans served in the arm forces
3. civil rights organizations campaigned during this time and challenged Jim Crow laws. Roosevelt prohibited discrimination in federal agencies and all companies involved with war work.
Morgan v. Virginia
declared unconstitutional those state laws mandating segregated seating on interstate buses
Brown v. Board of Education
struck down segregation in schooling as an unconstitutional violation of the 14th amendments’ equal protection clause
Brown II
second supreme court ruling that ordered school desegregation implemented with all deliberate speed.
Little Rock Nine
nine African-American students who had volunteered to integrate Little Rock’s Central High School
Rosa Parks
a seamstress and an NAACP officer
– refused to give her seat up for a white male
bus boycott
Marin Luther King Jr. lead
King’s resistance
– nonviolent resistance
– soul force
– sit-in and boycotts
SCLC
Southern Christen Leadership Conference
– lead to the organizing of Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
sit-ins
protesters sate sown at segregated places and refused to move
freedom riders
Bus riders who an organized bus trip across the south to fight bus segregation, their buses were bombed and police attacked with violent
James Meredith
air force veteran, won a federal court case that allowed him to enroll in the the all-white University of Mississippi (Ole Miss)
-reaction: riots and violence
Birmingham
– known for segregation and violence
– MLK lead protests and arrested
– 2 \”Chilren Crusades\” – the children arrested and attacked by police dogs and high powered water hoses. This stunned the country.
March to Washington
– 250,000 total people, 75,000 whites
I have a dream…
– speech given by MLK on the the Lincoln Memorial
– after speech more violence: 4 girls killed with a bomb, 2 died due to violence soon after, JKF assassinated
Civil Rights Act of 1964
prohibited discrimination because of race, religion, national origin and gender. Gave all citizens the right to enter into any public place
Neshoba County, MS
the county in Mississippi were 3 civil rights volunteers disappeared, the KKK were responsible for the murders
de facto segregation
segregation by practice and custom
– \”white flight\”
de jure segregation
segregation by law
Malcom X
– Islamic minister and follower of the Nation of Islam
– preached the whites were the cause of the black condition
– advocated armed self-defense
– people turned to more violence – \”Black Power\” and \”Black Panthers\”
MLK’s assassination
– April 4, 1968
– shot by James Earl Ray
– Memphis, TN
response to MLK’s death
– the worst urban rioting
Affirmative Action
making special efforts to hire or enroll groups that have suffered discrimination
legacy of Civil Rights
– increased African American college enrollment
– increased African American pride
– colleges offered \”Black Studies\”
– African American appeared on TV and movies more frequently
– increased African American voters
set the stage for the movement
WWII
south’s responce to Brown v. the Board of Education
the southern states did little to enforce the ruling
Freedom Summer
the summer of 1964, volunteers went into Mississippi to help register voters, 3 workers were killed
New political party
the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP), tried to gain seats in the Mississippi Democratic Party
Selma Campaign
Selma, Alabama, registered 2000 voters
– Jimmy Lee Jackson murdered
– MLK organized a march
– police violence captured on TV
– MLK organized another march – 25,000 people
– LBJ passes Voting Rights Act of 1965

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