American History 1 (Final Exam-Part 3)

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Polygenesis:
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In the field of linguistics, polygenesis is the view that human languages evolved as several lineages independent of one another.
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Elijah Lovejoy:
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Alton, Illinois – Mob Action in 1837- killed by a mob for writing about how bad slavery was.
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The Gag Rule:
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1836- An anti-slavery petitions not to be considered in Congress. 1844 – Repealed mostly due to John Quincy Adams.
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Abby Kelley Foster:
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She was a reform activist from Massachusetts. She was a part of abolition, women’s rights, and pacifism, meaning she was against war and violence.
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The Grimke sisters:
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Anelina and Sarah were sisters from South Carolina. They were daughters of a Judge/ Plantation Owner, and they hated slavery. They converted to Quakerism while in Philadelphia, and they were both prominent abolitionist speakers. They were against colonialism and for women’s rights. They had an appeal to the Women of the South. Angelina Grimke, in 1836, had arguments with Catherine Beecher, who thought women should be under men.
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Dorothea Dix:
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She was from Massachusetts and advocated more humane treatment for the insane. During the Civil War, she was Superintendant of Nurses for the Union Army.
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Penitentiaries:
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It was referred to a prison or a correctional house.
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Seneca Falls Convention of 1848:
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It was for feminism. It was organized by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott. In 1840, they were excluded from abolition meeting in London because they were women. They started a rallying cry for equal rights.
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Sojourner Truth:
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She was a black woman who delivered a speech at a women’s rights conference at Akron, Ohio, in 1851. She said “Ain’t I a woman?”
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Amelia Bloomer:
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She called for reform of Victorian dress – She wanted more comfortable under garments and that’s where the bloomers came from.
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Joseph Smith:
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1823, from Palmyra, New York. He claimed her was visited by an angel named Moroni and given golden plates, breastplate, and seer stones. He claimed American Indians were the lost tribes of Israel. He began the Church of Christ of Latter Day Saints (Mormons), which included polygamy. He moved to Ohio, then Missouri, and finally settled in Nauvoo, Illinois. 1844, Carthage, Illinois, Smith and his brother Hiram were arrested, and then killed by a mob.
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Brigham Young:
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A new leader of the Mormons – He lead 15,000 followers to salt lake city, Utah in 1847 to escape persecution.
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John Colter:
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He went on the Lewis and Clark (1804-1806) adventure of the Louisiana Purchase. The expedition was to establish diplomatic relations with western Indian tribes. He established presence in the Pacific Northwest. He gathered scientific data. This guy stayed behind and was considers the first mountain man. “Colter’s Run” For Jefferson this was someplace to send the Indians. He encouraged banks to loan money to Indians to drive then into debt and make them sell their lands. Benjamin Hawkins (Indian Affairs agent) encourages the introduction to African American slavery to Indians to further “civilize” them.
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Jim Beckwourth:
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Ex-slave. , A mountain man of African-American descent who became chief of the Crow Indian tribe.
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Tejanos:
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A non-Indian population of Spanish origin. 2000 in the region in 1820, Moses Austin gets land grant from Spain – the old 300. Dies in 1821.
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Stephen Austin:
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The son of Moses Austin. He led American settlers to demand greater autonomy within Mexico. Austin Texas is named after him.
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Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna:
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He became the Mexican President in 1833, dissolved congress and centralized government (dictator), 1830. Further immigration was banned; and they aome anyway, property tax and tariff, Tithe to Catholic Church. Several Mexican states rebelled.
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Jim Bowie:
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A 19th-century American pioneer, slave trader, land speculator, and soldier who played a prominent role in the Texas Revolution. He culminated in his death at the Battle of the Alamo. Stories of him as a fighter and frontiersman, both real and fictitious, have made him a legendary figure in Texas history and a folk hero of American culture.
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Goliad:
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Texans were defeated at Goliad and surrender. 342 were executed; this alienates European countries from Mexico and further infuriates Texans and the U.S.
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The Mier Expedition:
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Santa Fe Expedition, 1841- The second Texas President was Mirabeau Lamar
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Manifest Destiny:
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A term coined by journalist John L. O’Sullivan in 1845, “Manifest” = “obvious” U.S. was destined by God to reach all the way to the Pacific.
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James Birney:
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Former Kentucky Congressman. He started an Abolition newspaper in Cincinnati in 1836. Quit American Anti-slavery Society because he opposed women in leadership
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Champ Ferguson:
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He killed many pro union people and union people in east Tennessee during the Civil War. He admitted he did this and was proud of it.
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Pomp Kersey:
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He was a gorilla like champ Ferguson. He left to Confederate army near the end of the war to protect his home from union gorillas, Smith and DeKalb
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William Brickly Stokes:
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He was an American politician and a member of the United States House of Representatives from Tennessee. He also served as colonel of the 5th Tennessee Cavalry (Union) during the American Civil War
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Tinker Dave Beaty:
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He was a union gorilla that testified against Champ Ferguson at his trial.
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William Walker:
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“The Grey-Eyed Man of Destiny” from Nashville. Filibuster
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Filibuster:
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Baja California, Conquered Nicaragua (president, recognized by the U.S.) Honduras- killed 1857 invasions of Central AMerica countries launche provately by groups of American seeking to establish rule and spread slavery
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Edward Covey:
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The place Douglas was sent for a year. He very mean to his slave and was known to break bad slaves.
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Sophia Auld:
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The place Douglas lived or a while. She was so nice to him at first but as owning a slave got to her she began to be cold and cruel
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The Compromise of 1850:
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A complex compromise devised by Senator Henry Clay that admitted California as a free state, included a stronger fugitive slave law, and delayed determination of the slave status of the New Mexico and Utah territories. President Taylor died suddenly, but new president, Millard Fillmore, supported clays compromise
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John Brown:
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Pottawtomie massacre, Battle of Osawatomie, marched on Harper Ferry and tried to start a war against slavery
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Free labor Ideology:
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Embraced by free solders, and later the Republican Party. Free labor is the basis of democracy. Where there is slavery, free white laborers can’t get jobs, everyone should have an equal opportunity to profit from their labor. Where there is equal opportunity, hardworking individuals can move up the socio-economic ladder, work hard, and someday you can be your own boss. As a result of anti-slavery became a respectable position in American politics. Eventually the south would lose power and not be able to protect their slavery.
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Free Soilers:
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wanted to prevent the spread of slavery, so that small farmers would have access to land in new territories, and white laborers could get jobs in them.
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Bleeding Kansas:
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Uproar in Kansas about slavery after many people from Missouri crossed over to vote in the 1854 elections. The president replaces the Governor and a civil war broke out
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Dred Scott:
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Can a black person be a citizen and therefore be able to sue in federal court? Does residence in a free state make a slave free? Does congress have the power to prohibit slavery in a territory? Roger B. Taney (Chief Justice) decides: Blacks cannot be citizens, and cannot sue in court. Illinois law had no effect once Scott returned to Missouri, so far as Wisconsin goes: Congress has no right to prohibit slavery in a territory which means the 1820 Missouri Compromise and the Kansas-Nebraska (popular Sovereignty) Act were unconstitutional
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The Ostend Manifesto:
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It called for us to seize Cuba from Spain because slavery was still legal
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Preston Brooks:
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He beat senator Charles Sumner of Massachusetts almost to death after he delivered a denunciation of ” the Crime Against Kansas”
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The Cornerstone Speech:
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It was delivered extemporaneously by Confederate Vice President Alexander Stephens in Savannah, Georgia on March 21, 1861. The speech explained what the differences were between the constitution of the Confederate Republic and that of the United States, laid out the Confederate causes for the American Civil War, and defended slavery. The ‘Cornerstone Speech’ became so known for Stephens’ asserting, Our new Government is founded upon exactly the opposite ideas; its foundations are laid, its cornerstone rests, upon the great truth that the negro is not equal to the white man; that slavery, subordination to the superior race, is his natural and normal condition.
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George McClellan:
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December 3, 1826 – October 29, 1885) he was a major general during the American Civil War and the Democratic Party candidate for President in 1864. He organized the famous Army of the Potomac and served briefly (November 1861 to March 1862) as the general-in-chief of the Union Army. Early in the war, McClellan played an important role in raising a well-trained and organized army for the Union. Although McClellan was meticulous in his planning and preparations, these characteristics may have hampered his ability to challenge aggressive opponents in a fast-moving battlefield environment. He chronically overestimated the strength of enemy units and was reluctant to apply principles of mass, frequently leaving large portions of his army unengaged at decisive points
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Emancipation Proclamation:
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presented by President Lincoln to end slavery in the confederate states. And also said blacks could fight in the Union Army.
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Robert Gould Shaw:
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in the movie
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Sand Creek:
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(also known as the Chivington Massacre, the Battle of Sand Creek or the Massacre of Cheyenne Indians) was an atrocity in the Indian Wars of the United States that occurred on November 29, 1864, when a 700-man force of Colorado Territory militia attacked and destroyed a village of friendly Cheyenne and Arapaho encamped in southeastern Colorado Territory killing and mutilating an estimated 70-163 Indians, about two-thirds of whom were women and children. The location has been designated a National Historic Site and is administered by the National Park Service.
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Stand Watie:
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December 12, 1806 – September 9, 1871 – Also known as Standhope Uwatie, Degataga (Cherokee: ᏕᎦᏔᎦ), meaning “stand firm”) was a leader of the Cherokee Nation and a brigadier general of the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. He commanded the Confederate Indian cavalry of the Army of the Trans-Mississippi, made up mostly of Cherokee, Muskogee and Seminole.
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The Dakota Uprising:
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Also known as the Sioux Uprising, (and the Dakota Uprising, the Sioux Outbreak of 1862, the Dakota Conflict, the U.S.-Dakota War of 1862 or Little Crow’s War) was an armed conflict between the United States and several bands of the Eastern Sioux (also known as eastern Dakota). It began on August 17, 1862, along the Minnesota River in southwest Minnesota. It ended with a mass execution of 38 Dakota
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Black codes:
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Laws passed in the southern states to restrict the rights of former slaves; to nullify the codes, Congress passé the Civil Rights Act of 1866 and the Fourteenth Amendment.
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Waving the bloody shirt:
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refers to the practice of politicians referencing the blood of martyrs or heroes to criticize opponents
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Fire-eaters:
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Wanted to split the democratic party and make a confederate south
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Carpetbaggers:
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People who moved to the south from the north after the war
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Scalawags:
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Southern whites Republicans – some former Unionists – who supported Reconstruction governments.
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Lost Cause Ideology:
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Post war – The Union won only because of their overwhelming numbers and industrial advantage

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