America: A Narrative History – 9th Edition

Flashcard maker : Patricia Smith
Spoils system p. 444
The practice of rewarding supporters with government jobs. Jackson made this practice famous for the way he did it on a wide scale.This meant government workers already in office had to be fired to make room for the new. 1.Many said this wasn’t right and criticized the spoils system. They also claimed that the people he put into office had no qualifications. 2.Jackson shot back saying, \”To the victor belong the spoils.\” This meant that whoever wins the presidency can do as he pleases.
3.Jackson also argued that federal jobs weren’t offered on a for-life basis and that a little change is a good thing in a government.
Martin Van Buren p. 445
Served as secretary of state during Andrew Jackson’s first term, vice president during Jackson’s second term, and won the presidency in 1836. He passed the Divorce Bill which placed the federal surplus in vaults located in large cities and not in the private banks. The Panic of 1837 ruined his presidency, and he was voted out of office in 1840. He later supported the Free Soil Party.
Peggy Eaton Affair p. 445
Social scandal (1829-1831) – John Eaton, Secretary of War, stayed with the Timberlakes when in Washington, and there were rumors of his affair with Peggy Timberlake even before her husband died in 1828. Many cabinet members snubbed the socially unacceptable Mrs. Eaton. Jackson sided with the Eatons, and the affair helped to dissolve the cabinet – especially those members associated with John C. Calhoun (V.P.), who was against the Eatons and had other problems with Jackson.
Webster-Hayne debate p. 449
A famous unplanned debate in the United States between Senator Daniel Webster of Massachusetts and Senator Robert Y. Hayne of South Carolina that took place on January 19-27, 1830 on a resolution by Connecticut Senator Samuel A. Foot calling for the temporary suspension of further land surveying until land already on the market was sold (this would effectively stop the introduction of new lands onto the market). Senators from western states viewed this proposal as a cynical scheme to preserve for northeastern manufacturing interests a cheap labor supply that might otherwise be lured away by the beckoning opportunities of plentiful western lands. Senator Robert Hayne of South Carolina saw in this developing Northeast-West dispute an opportunity to build a political alliance between the South and the West. Hayne shared the view of southern planters that an agricultural system built on slavery could only survive with an unlimited supply of cheap western lands. Webster’s \”Second Reply to Hayne\” was generally regarded as \”the most eloquent speech ever delivered in Congress.\” where Webster’s description of the U.S. government as \”made for the people, made by the people, and answerable to the people,\” was later paraphrased by Abraham Lincoln in the Gettysburg Address in the words \”government of the people, by the people, for the people.\”
Tariff of 1832 p. 453
(AJ) , The Tariff of 1832 was a protectionist tariff in the United States. It was passed as a reduced tariff to remedy the conflict created by the tariff of 1828, but it was still deemed unsatisfactory by southerners and other groups hurt by high tariff rates. Southern opposition to this tariff and its predecessor, the Tariff of Abominations, caused the Nullification Crisis involving South Carolina. The tariff was later lowered down to 35 percent, a reduction of 10 percent, to pacify these objections.
Force Bill – p. 454
The bill authorized President Jackson to use the army and navy to collect duties on the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832 even if states disagree. South Carolina nullified it, and would not collect duties on them. The Force Act was never invoked because it was passed by Congress the same day as the Compromise Tariff of 1833, so it became unnecessary.
Osceloa p 457
Leader of the Seminoles; planned surprise attacks;
resisted removal which lead to the second Seminole war, later he was captured and became a martyr
Trail of Tears p. 459
The Cherokee Indians were forced to leave their lands. They traveled from North Carolina and Georgia through Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas-more than 800 miles (1,287 km)-to the Indian Territory. More than 4, 00 Cherokees died of cold, disease, and lack of food during the 116-day journey.
Nicholas Biddle p. 460
The brilliant but arrogant President of the Second Bank of the United States; he struggled to keep the bank functioning when President Jackson tried to destroy it. Many people believed he held an unconstitutional amount of power over the nation’s financial affairs. The power struggle between Biddle and Jackson led to Jackson depositing a large amount of investments into his pet banks, forcing the seocnd bank to close.
Anti-Masonic Party p 464
a 19th century minor political party in the United States. It strongly opposed Freemasonry, and was founded as a single-issue party, aspiring to become a major party. They attracted support from evangelical Protestants who were against secret societies like The Freemasons.
\”Pet Banks\” p. 465
A term used by Jackson’s opponents to describe the state banks that the federal government used for new revenue deposits in an attempt to destroy the Second Bank of the United States; the practice continued after the charter for the Second Bank expired in 1836.
Whig Party . 468
An American political party formed in the 1830s to oppose President Andrew Jackson and the Democrats, stood for protective tariffs, national banking, and federal aid for internal improvements
Divorce Bill p. 471
Many banks went under & Many farmers lost their farms.
The Whigs formed a plan proposed expanding bank credit, higher tariffs, and money for internal improvements. President Van Buren disliked wasteful government spending and halted such plans starting the \”Divorce Bill\” which said the government should \”divorce\” itself from banking altogether. This bill set up an \”independent treasury\” where extra government money would be kept in vaults (not in the banks. This would give the government stability independent of the whims of the banking world.)
The Divorce Bill went on a roller-coaster ride: it was controversial, passed, was repealed by the Whigs, then reenacted 6 years later. It did serve as a first step toward the modern Federal Reserve System.
Free Soil Party p. 603-604
Formed in 1847 – 1848, dedicated to opposing slavery in newly acquired territories such as Oregon and ceded Mexican territory.merged with the Liberty Party in 1848

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