ALL Mass Media Test
Flashcard maker : Lily Taylor
Communication is best defined as:
the process of creating shared meaning
the response to a given communication
Communication between two or only a few people is
When messages are translated into an understandable sign and symbol system by participant in the communication process,___has occured
When signs and symbols are interpreted by a participant in the communication process,___ is said to have occured
Anything that interfers with successful communication is said to be
In communication, the means by which messages are carried is
The process of creating shared meaning between the mass media and their audiences is
“Communication is a symbolic process whereby reality is produced, maintained, repaired, and transformed”
the cultrual definition of communication
the learned behavior of members of a given social group
The specific internal language of a given medium for example, the choice of lighting in a soap opera is a media
The culture that seems to hold sway with the majority of a given people is the
The ability to comprehend and use a given form of communication effectively and efficiently is
Which of the following is NOT an element of media literacy?
posessing the skill to discern between movies and tv shows
Cultures without a written language are called
The common assumption that media messages affect others but not ourselves is
the third person effect
Gutenberg developed his press to produce
The idea that history can be explained in terms of new and emerging technologies is
An alphabet that employs sequences of vowels and consonants is
a syllable alphabet
Categories of expression within the different media, for example the evening news and documentaries are media
The communication scholar credited with developing the cultural definition of communication is
The concentration of control of the media industries into ever smaller numbers of companies is
The ownership of several major U.S. media corporations by foreign companies is an example of:
globalization of media
The strategy of tailoring media content to specific audiences possessing characteristis of interest to specific advertisers is
narrow casting or niche marketing
The means of delivering a specific piece of media content is referred to as
When you simultaneously consume many different kinds of media, you are engaging in
The integration, for a fee, of specific branded products into media content s
The ability to access any content, anytime, anywhere describes
When audiences consume content at a time predetermined by the producer and distributor
The “trades” are
The graphic description of how individuals make media and content choices based on expectation of reward and effort of required is the
fraction of selection
Disney’s purchase of CaptialCities/ABC is an example of
concentration of media ownershiop
Many cable channels—for example Nickelodeon and A&E—prosper through their ability to deliver demographically narrow audiences to advertisers
Despite what is happening to the other traditional forms of mass media, radio listnership, especially among young people, continues to grow.
The heaviest loss of newspaper readership is among young adults
Despite many forms of media being used less, overall media consumption is on the rise
A book that is downloaded in electronic form from the internet to a computer or handheld device is
When books are digitally stored, and once ordered instantly printed, bound, and shipped, this is:
Books that are produced for elementary and high schools are called:
At a publishing house, the ____is in charge of determining which books that house will publish
Most of the books carried to the new world by the American colonists were:
religious in nature
A book is ___when someone in authority limits publication of or access to it.
Books that are published first and only as paperbacks designed to appeal to a broad readership are called:
mass market publications
The sale of a book, its contents, and its characters to filmmakers, paperback publishers , book clubs and merchaindise manufacturesis called the sale of its_______rights
In 1860, the Beadle brothers began selling popular action novels for 10 cents. These helped turn the book into a mass medium
The book you bought(or should have bought) for this class is an example of which sales category of books?
Fahrenheit 451 was written by:
The publication and distribution of a book initially or exclusively online is called:
The book industry was slow to develop after the Revolutionary War. Books were still expensive, and literacy remained a luxury. But in a movement that began before the Civil War, _____came to most states by 1900, swelling the number of readers
The American novel flowered in the 1880s because of all but which of the following:
increased leisure time
Single-sheet announcements or accounts of events imported from England and posted on walls in the American Colonies were called:
The first 10 amendments to the U.S. Constitution are called the :
Bill of Rights
The 1798_____made illegal the writing, publishing, or printing of any “false scandalous and malicious writing” about the president, Congress, or the federal government.
Alien and Sedition Acts
In 1849, six large New York papers, including the Sun, Herald, and Tribune, decided to pool efforts and share expenses in collecting news from foreign ships docking at the city’s harbor. In doing so they established the first:
In 1883, Hungarian immigrant Joseph Pulitzer bought the troubled New York World. His readership was “the common man” and he succeeded in reaching readers with light, sensationalistic news coverage, extensive use of illustrations, and circulation-building stunts and promotions. This brand of journalism became known as:
When newspaper circulation figures include readers who did not originally buy the papers they read, they are said to include___readership
The oldest national daily newspaper in the U.S. is
the Wall Street Journal
The newest national daily newspaper in the United States is:
The feature service, or ______, do not gather and distribute news. Instead, they operate as clearinghouses for the work of columnists, essayists, cartoonists, and other creative individuals.
The idea that relative story placement is one factor in _____, newspaper’s ability to influence not only what we think, but what we think about.
The press’ guarantee of freedom, as well as all people’s right to free speech, is set out in which amendment to the U.S. Constitution?
In the first decades of the 20th century, Theordore Roosevelt coined the term_____ tos describe writers who agitated for change by targeting powerful political and industrial people and institutions.
Today there are approximatley_____magazines in operation in the United States.
______carry stories, features, and ads aimed at people in specific professions and are distributed either by the professional organizations themselves or by media companies like Whittle Communications and Time Warner
Trade, professional, and business magazines
_____ are produced by companies specifically for their own employees, customers,and stockholders, or by clubs and associations specifically for their members
Industrial, company, and spondored magazines
___are magazines sold by subscription and at newstands, bookstores, and other retail outlets,like supermarkets, garden shops, and computer stores.
The magazine industry typically categorizes consumer magazines in terms of their
The total number of sold issues of a magazine is its
Readers who neither subscribe to nor buy single copies of a magazine but who borrow or read one in a doctors office or library are a magazine’s:
______are ads that appear in magazines that take on the appearence of genuine editorial content
The university alumni magazine that you will recieve when you graduate is an example of _____ magazine.
an industrial, company, or sponsored
When you read Vogue, Sports Illustrated, or Wired, youre reading ____ magazine
______American consumer magazine maintain Websites
______are special versions of a given issue of a magazine, in which editorial content and ads vary according to some specific demographic or regional grouping.
Produced to look like a consumer magazine, a ____is actually a mail-order catalog
The ____was established in 1914 to provide reliability to a booming magazine industry playing loose with self-announced circulation figures.
Audit Bureau of Circulations
Magazines price advertising space in their pages according to their:
_____was first published in 1923. Its brief presentation of the week’s news in review was immediately popular, and it was making a profit within a year of its birth.
_____ occurs when a magazine is provided at no cost to readers who meet some specific set of advertiser-attractive criteria. Free airline and hotel magazines fit this category.
The first African-American newspaper was ______, published initially in 1827 by John B. Russwurum and the Revernd Samual Cornish.
In response to radio and magazine’s challenge for advertising dollars, newspapers began consolidating into groups,known as _____. Hearst and Scripss were among the most powerful, owning papers in different cities across the country.
_____permit a failig paper to merge most aspects of its business with a successful local compeitotr, as long as their editorial and reporting operations remain seperate.
Joint Operating agreements
Newspapers have traditionally kept their advertising and editorial functions seperate. This is often referred to as the
Approximately how many daily newspapers are sold each day in the U.S.?
Newspaper horoscopres , chess and bridge columns, editorial cartoons, and comics are all material provided by
Overall, levels of newspaper ciruclation have____for many years, and the amount of time people spend reading the newspaper has_____
Online magazines are categorized in two ways as:
online editions of existing magazines and online-only magazines
The Postal Act of 1879 increased literacy and reduced cover prices, and ______fueled the booming interest in mass circulation magazines after the Civil War.
the spread of the railroad
The first film to utilize editing, intercutting of scenes, and a mobile camera to tell a story was
The Great Train Robbery
The linking of consumer products, such as toys and hamburgers, with popular movies is called
People can see motion in rapidly moving pictures because of the physiological phenomenon known as
persistence of vision
The first motion picture studio was built in New Jersey by:
Adding to the scandals that surrounds Hollywood in the 1920s was the arrest of actor______for a murder in San Francisco hotel
Studios financing their own films with their own money are called:
The control of a films production, distribution, and exhibition by a movie studio is called:
The majority of movies that make it to U.S. theater screens are produced by:
____and______ were two economic innovations that helped the movie industry survive the Depression.
Dourble Features; B-movies
Modern filmmaking characterized by reduced risk taking and formulaic movies is called:
In 1908, Thomas Edison united the 10 companies that held all the necessary patents for film production into Motion Picture Patents Company (MPPC), which was often simply called:
This man directed A trip to the Moon and was a character in the recent film Hugo
Stations that link themselves to a national broadcast network for the purpose of airing its programs are
The P2P software that most fuels the contemporary recording industry’s piracy fears is____, file-sharing software that allows anonymous users to create “swarms” of data as they simultaneously download and upload bits of content from countless, untraceable servers.
The Radio Act of 1927 required that when radio license was awarded, the standard of evaluation would be:
the public interest, conviencence or necessity
Marconi’s interest in develooping wireless transmission was
After the sinking of the Titanic, the U.S. Congress passed the ____, mandating among other things that wireless operators be licensed by the secretary of commerce and labor.
Radio Act of 1912
What gives you te best idea of how many people are watching a particular program?
Recreating an event that either did or is presumed to have happned for television news cameras is
Lucille Balls insistence that she, rather than CBS, own the rights to her television program set the stage not only for reruns but also for
the creation of the syndication industry
Red Channels : The Report of Communist Influence in Radio and Television:
listed the names of 151 broadcast personalities with alleged ties to the Communist Party
The primary collector and reporter of television ratings is a company known as:
Four time each year more detailed measuring of television audiences takes place called_____, employing not only mechanical counting but home diaries.
A still-used derogatory name for television, the vast wasteland, was coined by:
FCC Chairman Newton Minow
The sale of programs to loal stations on a market-to-market basis is :
New video technologies that allow viewers to “talk” to programmers and content distributors while watching will produce_____television
The primary goal of most early cable television operations was
to improve the reception of distant signals
Wire that allows the sending of signals by light beams is called:
A syndicated program that runs five nights a wekk at the same time is said to be:
Recording a television show on a home VCR or DVR for later viewing is called:
The “free” channels provided automatically to all subscribers are called:
_____are sent through fiber-optic lines
Pulses of Light
The capacity of the wires or signals that bring video content into people’s homes is called
Multiplexing, which “squeezes” signals to permit multiple signals to be carried over one channel, is made possible by:
______ and Idaho schoolboy, moved to San Francisco, where he demonstrated his television system in 1927
Groups of channels made available to subscribers at varying prices are known in the cable business as
The creation of programs expressly for sale to individual markets is called.
first run syndication
LED stands for
light emitting diode
Companies that create games for existing systems are called
Introduced in 1986, ____was the first game to offer open structure play, that is, play that let players go where they wished and offered multiple routes to winning
Legend of Zelda
ESRB stands for
Entertainment Software Ratings Board
The fastest growing game demographic is
females over 18
Wii was introduced in 2006 specifically to attract
non-traditional game players
LAN stands for
Local Area Network
The Global network of interconnected computers that communicate freely and share and exhange information is called the
Computers that reduce information to a code made up of digits 1 and 0 for storage and manipulation are said to use a ____code
The development of the ____ with its small size, absence of heat, and low coast—made personal computers possible
The Apple II personal computer was developed by
Steve Jobs and Stephen Wozniak
The “network of networks” consisting of LANS and WANS is called
Each file or directory on the Internet is designated by an address, called its
Uniform Resource Locator (URL)
Telephone over the Internet in which voice messages are transmitted in digital packets is
The software that tells a computer how to work is called its
Finding information on the Web is easy thanks to_____, which provide on-screen menus making navigation of the Web as simple as pointing and clicking
The availability of trustworthy____coding and decoding technologies that make online use of credit and bank card numbers, addresses, social security numbers, and other sensitive information safer for both seller and buyer has fueld interest as a place to do business
An event staged specifically to attract public attention is a
“A sucker is born every minute” was the public relations philosophy of what legendary PR practitioner?
President Franklin D. Roosevelt made impressive use of which medium as a public relations tool to sell his New Deal directly to the people?
The public relations activity of getting media coverage for clients is called
The public relatioins activity of interacting with officials and leaders of the various power centers with whom a client must deal is known as
The public relations activity that involves enhancement of communication between investor-owned companies and their shareholders, the financial community, and the public is known as
financial public relations
______, outright lying or obfuscation, is antithetical to authentic communication and should be avoided by PR professionals, according to executive Roxanne Taylor
The research tool____employs small groups of a targeted public that are interviewed in detail to provide a public relations operation and its clients with feedback
______is the PR practice of offering client’s spokespeople for interview by worldwide audience via videoconferencing
Satellite-delivered media tour
When a PR firm actively combines public relations, marketing, advertising, and promotion into a more or less seamless communication campaign that is as at home on the Web as it is on the television screen and magazine page, it is engaging in:
integrated marketing communications
The PR strategy that relies on targeting specific Internet users with a given communication and relying on them to spread the word is referred to as
____refers to a fake grassroots organizations, that is, one funded in secret by those with a vested interest in the issue at hand
When PR professionals directly interact with elected officials or government regulators and agents, they are engaging in
Around 1913, public relatioins pioneer_____issued his Declaration of Principles, which moved the professions focus from dispensing publicity to providing information
Around the 1920s, public relations pioneer_____began stressing two-way communication—-that is public relations practitioners talking to people, and in return listening to them when they talked back.
With the rapid industrialization and improved transportation of the 1880s, more product producers were chasing the growing purchasing power of more consumers. As a result, they were forced to differentiate their products, resulting in the development of:
Near the turn of the 20th century, the ____was established to verify magazine circulation claims
Audit Bureau of Circulations
In the early days of radio—the 1920s until well after World War II–programming was
produced by ad agencies for their clients
A product’s______is what sets it apart from other brands in the same category.
unique selling proposition
Reacting to increasing public criticism and FTC scrutiny in the 1970s, the ad industry established the _____to monitor potentially deceptive advertising, still the industry’s most important self regulatory body
National Advertising Review Board
____is mediated messages paid for by and identified with a business or institution that seeks to increase the likelihood that those who consume those messages will act or think as the advertiser wishes
The _____department is typically headed by an account executive, who serves as liaison between agency and client, keeping communication flowing between the two and heading the team of specialists assigned by the agency to the client.
The_______department is where the advertising developed from idea to ad. It involves copywriting, graphic design, and often the actual production of the piece, for example, radio, television, and Web spots
The ______department makes the decisions about where and when to place ads and then buys the appropriate time or space.
_____advertising is the advertising of products by stores like Sears and Macy’s. It is typically local, reaching consumers where they live and shop
_____refers to Web pages “brought to you by” typciall including a number of ad placements, advertorials, and other co-branded sections.
Clients are increasingly asking advertisers for _____agreements on campaign-specific outcomes and consensus on how will the effectiveness of a specific ad or campaign be judged.
Creating advertising to appeal to audiences of varying personal and social characteristics, such as race, gender, and economic level, is called_____segmentation
Creating advertising to appeal to consumer groups of varying lifestyles, attitudes, values, and behavior patterns is called____ segmentation.
One of the difficult issues in the regulation of advertising is finding the line between false or deceptive advertising and _____ that little lie that makes advertising more entertaining than it might otherwise be.
In advertising research_______, measures the effectivness of advertising messages by showing them to consumers
When most brands in a given product category are essentially the same, they are called
Among the criticisms of advertising is its____, the fact that ads are everywhere—in schools, on sidewalks, even in the sky.
theory argues that reality is a social construction
social construction of reality
Media effects on individuals are said to be
Media effects that occur at the cultural level are said to be
theory argues that cultures give symbols meaning and then those symbols control behavior
theory argues that media do not tell us what to think, but what to think about
Mass communication_____are explanations and predictions of social phenomena that attempt to relate mass communication to various aspects of our personal and cultural lives or social systems
The mass society theory idea that media are a dangerous drug, or a killing force that directly and immediately penetrates a persons system, is summed up in the
hypodermic needle theory
_____theory explains how peoples attitudes are formed, shaped, and changed through communication and how those attitudes influence behavior
____theory argues that people experience a kind of mental discomfort when confronted with new information. As a result, they consciously and subconsciously work to limit or reduce that discomfort
People psychological dissonance is reduced through the selective process, one of which is____ the process by which people interpret messages in a manner consistent with their prexisting attitudes and beliefs
The idea that mass communication ordinarily does not serve as a necessary and sufficient cause of audience effects, but rather functions among and through a nexus of mediating factors and influences, is the basis of Joseph Klapper’s_____theory
_____theory argues that media don’t do things to people; rather, people do things with media. In other words, media’s influence is limited to what people allow it to be
Uses and gratifications
____theory is the idea that people learn through observation to model the behaviors they see
Social cognitive theorists call the direct replication of an observed behavior
During the _____era of mass communication theory, the media were believed to be corrupting influences that undermined the social order, and “average” people were considered defenseless against their influence.
mass society theory
The theory of ____says that television constructs reality of the world that, although possibly inaccurate, becomes the accepted reality simply because we as a culture believe it to be true.
Because freedom of the press can be limited if the liely result is damaging, there is no absolute freedom of expression in the case of
clear and present danger
The false and malicious publication of material that damages a person’s reputation( typcially applied to print) is
Oral or spoken defamation of a person’s character (typically applied to broadcasting) is
Potentially libelous or slanderous expression is protected by the First Amendment if it meets the test of all but which of the following
The basis for the test of______is the idea that the press cannot be deterred from covering legislative, court, or other public activities for fear that the comments of a speaker or witness will open it to claims of libel and slander
When a media outlet distributes content with knowledge of its falsity or a reckless disregard for the truth, it has acted with
The power of the government to prevent the publication or broadcast of expression is called
The guarantee to a fair trail is secured in the _____Amendment to the Constitution.
According to the FCC, language or material that depicts secual or excretory acitivities in a way that is offensive to contemporary community standards is
Identifiying and granting ownership of a given piece of expression, _____ is designed to protect the creators financial interest in that expression
Once the copyright on a piece of expression expires and is not renewed, the material passes into____meaning it can be used without permission
Rules of behavior or moral principles that guide our actions in given situations are
The issue of ____, an important tool of journalism, invovles the ability of media professionals to keep secret the names of people who provide them with information
In addition to industry professional codes, many media organizations have formulated their own institutional policies for conduct. In the case of the broadcast networks, these are enforced by:
standards and practices departments
The copyright exception of _______is when the small portions of the original work are used for noncommercial or educational purposes
Royalty payments in the music industry are collected from useres and paid to musicians by_____like ASCAP and BMI
Media practitioners who put their ethical values into action are using
In applying ethics, the persom making the decisions is called the
Among the individual or group interests that often conflict in ehtical dilemmas are thos of the ____a particular person or group that is likely to be affected by media practitioners actions
object of the act
A clandestine broadcast operation that operates outside the region into which it transmits is an
Illegally operated radio stations broadcasting to English audiences from offshore or foreign facilities during the 1960s were called
Many countries maintain broadcasting services called_____that are designed to counter the propoganda of rival nations and disseminate information about themselves
The American broadcasting service established during World War II and the Cold war to deliver Department of Defense internal information, and radio and television programming services overseas Department of Defense personnel and their families is
the Armed Forces Radio and Television Service
In international broadcasting, an operation established by one country to substitute for another’s own domestic service is called
a surrogate service
In 1962 the U.S. Congress established_____to coordinate ownership and operation of America’s communications satellite systems
Great Britain does not have a First Amendment similar to that of the United States, allowing the governmne tto practice prior restraint by making an officially issued notice called a
In Great Britain the BBC is funded by ____based on the number of recievers people have in their homes
Many countries, especially developing ountries lacking sufficient resources to create their own quality media fare, fear that U.S. cultural values will overwhelm and displace those of their own lands, a process known as:
The American surrogate service transmitting into Cuba is Radio and Television
Among American’s external services is____, which provides “a touch of home” to Department of Defense and U.S. military personnel around the world.
Among America’s external services is _____, which attempts to improve the image of the U.S. in the Middle East.
Yahoo, Cisco, Google, and Microsoft have all angered freedom of expression advocates by the way they have served the Chinese Government in order to do business in that giant country. But it is_____that has earned the more ire because it has delievered information to the police that led to the jailing of several Chinese pro-democracy activists
Britain’s external service is the BBC