Alkanes

1-Isopropyl-3,5-dimethylcyclohexane
1-Isopropyl-3,5-dimethylcyclohexane
.
Butane
Butane
Cyclopropane
Cyclopropane
2,2-Dimethylpentane
2,2-Dimethylpentane
Pentane
Pentane
Propane
Propane
2-Methyloctane
2-Methyloctane
2,2,3-Trimethyloctane
2,2,3-Trimethyloctane
Cyclopentane
Cyclopentane
3,3-Diethyl-2,5-dimethylnonane
3,3-Diethyl-2,5-dimethylnonane
.
1-Ethyl-2-methylcyclohexane
1-Ethyl-2-methylcyclohexane
.
3-Methylpentane
3-Methylpentane
Hexane
Hexane
2-Methylbutane
2-Methylbutane
2,2-Dimethylbutane
2,2-Dimethylbutane
3,4-Dimethylhexane
3,4-Dimethylhexane
.
Octane
Octane
Heptane
Heptane
Methylcycloheptane
Methylcycloheptane
.
1,4-Dimethylcyclohexane
1,4-Dimethylcyclohexane
.
5,5-Diethyl-2,3,6-trimethylnonane
5,5-Diethyl-2,3,6-trimethylnonane
.
2-Methylbutane
2-Methylbutane
C6,H14
C6,H14
How Many Carbon?
How Many Hydrogen?
C6H12
C6H12
Determine the chemical formula for this molecule
A,C
Several statements are given below. Choose all of the statements that would be TRUE for the molecule propane.
A) In complete combustion it yields three molecules of carbon dioxide
B) Its chemical formula is C3H6
C) It is a gas at room temperature and standard pressure
D) It is the simplest hydrocarbon
A) Structural Isomers
A) Structural Isomers
Which of the following best describes how these two molecules are related to each other? Choose the best answer.
A) Structural (constitutional) Isomers
B) Geometric Isomers
C) None of these options
D) Conformers
A) Structural Isomers
A) Structural Isomers
Which of the following best describes how these molecules are related to each other? Choose the best answer.
A) Structural (constitutional) Isomers
B) Conformers
C) Geometric Isomers
D) None of these options
3-ethyl-5-methylheptane
3-ethyl-5-methylheptane
What is the Iupac name?
4-Ethyl-3,5-dimethylheptane
4-Ethyl-3,5-dimethylheptane
What is the Iupac name?
A
Three carbon atoms have been labeled on the molecule below. Which of these carbon atoms are tertiary?
Hydrocarbons
compounds consist of only carbon and hydrogen
Expanded Structural Formula
written to show the bonds between all atoms
Carbon has _____ shape
Tetrahedral
Alkanes
Class of hydrocarbons in which atoms are connected by single bonds )C-C and C-H)
All are non-polar
3 types: Straight chain alkane, Branched-chained Alkanes, and Cyclic Alkanes
Alkane name from 1 carbon – 10 carbon atoms
methane 1 hexane 6
ethane 2 heptane 7
Propane 3 octane 8
Butane 4 nonane 9
Pentane 5 decane 10
Condensed structure formula
carbon and attached hydrogen are written as a group CH3CH2CH3 ect
Branched groups are connected with a vertical line.
Cycloalkanes
Hydrocarbons form cyclic structures called cycloalkanes these have 2 fewer H atoms
CH3-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3
PENTANE
Substituents
branches off alkanes that replace the Hydrogen
Isomers
Isomers
2 compounds have same molecular formula but different arrangement of atoms (different structure)
When a carbon is branched you replace the ane with ___?
-yl
CH3- Methyl
CH3-CH2 Ethyl
2-methylpentane
2-methylpentane
3-chloro-2-methylpentane
3-chloro-2-methylpentane
2,4-dibromo-2-methypentane
2,4-dibromo-2-methypentane
bromomethane , chloroethane
bromomethane , chloroethane
methylcyclopentane
methylcyclopentane
2,2-dimethylbutane
2,2-dimethylbutane
1,3-dichlorobutane
1,3-dichlorobutane
What is the correct condensed structural formula for 2,4 dimentylpentane
What is the correct condensed structural formula for 2,4 dimentylpentane
4-ethyl-2,2-dimethylhexane
4-ethyl-2,2-dimethylhexane
Methane
Methane
Ethane
Ethane
Propane
Propane
Butane
Butane
Pentane
Pentane
Hexane
Hexane
Heptane
Heptane
Octane
Octane
Cyclopentane
Cyclopentane
Cyclohexane
Cyclohexane
Cyclooctane
Cyclooctane
2-methylpropane
2-methylpropane
dichloromethane
CH2Cl2
1,2-dichloroethane
CH2Cl-CH2Cl
1,1-dichloroethane
CHCl2-CH3
2-chlorobutane
2-chlorobutane
3,5-dibromo-1-chlorohexane
CH3 CHBr CH2 CHBr CH3 CH2Cl
1-bromo-2-methylpentane
CH2Br CH(CH3) CH2 CH2 CH3
2,2,3-trimethylbutane
2,2,3-trimethylbutane
2-methylpentane
2-methylpentane
1-bromo-1-chlorobutane
1-bromo-1-chlorobutane
3-ethylhexane
3-ethylhexane
1-ethyl-2,5-dimethylcycloheptane
1-ethyl-2,5-dimethylcycloheptane
1-chloro-1-methylcyclopentane
1-chloro-1-methylcyclopentane
4-ethyloctane
4-ethyloctane
3-ethylpentane
3-ethylpentane
Alkane
Alkane
Alkene
Alkene
Alkyne
Alkyne
Alcohol
Alcohol
CH₃CH₃
CH₃CH₃
CH₃COCH₃
CH₃COCH₃
CH₃CH₂CH₃
CH₃CH₂CH₃
CH₃CH(OH)CH₃
CH₃CH(OH)CH₃
CH₃CH₂CH₂OH
CH₃CH₂CH₂OH
CH₃CH(CH₃)₂
CH₃CH(CH₃)₂
CH₂C(CH₃)₂
CH₂C(CH₃)₂
CH₃(CH₂)₄CH₃
CH₃(CH₂)₄CH₃
CH₃(CH₂)₂CH(CH₃)₂
CH₃(CH₂)₂CH(CH₃)₂
Methyl
Name the functional group:
C-3H
cis-isomer
In this isomer, to specific molecules, labeled X in this case, are on the same side.
trans-isomer
if two specific molecule, both labeled S, are on different sides, this molecule is a(n)
yes
are cis fats kinked?
NO
are trans fats kinked?
catalysts
chemical agents that selectively speed up reactions are known as
Primary Carbon

Has one other non-hydrogen atom attached
Secondary Carbon

Has two other non-hydrogen atom attached
Tertiary Carbon

Has three other non-hydrogen atom attached
Quaternary Carbon

Has four other non-hydrogen atom attached
Covalently bonded compounds
Carbon: four bonds, always
Hydrogen: one bond always
Oxygen: two bonds
Nitrogen: three bonds
Straight chains:
All carbons are connected in one continous chain
Branched chain
one or more carbons branch off of the main chain
Alkane properties
All are non-polar
MP and BP increase with number of carbons in a straight chain alkane
MP and BP increase with length of chain
MP and BP decrease with increased number of substituents
Short alkanes (methane, ethane, propane) are gases are room temp.
Medium alkanes (butane to octane) are liquids are room temp
very Long alkanes are solids. Some solids include waxes and petroleum
Alkane reactions
Combustion
Halogenation
Alkanr Combustion Reaction
Alkane + O₂ →(spark)→CO₂ + H₂O
CH₄ + 2O₂ → CO₂ + 2H₂O
Alkane Halogenation Reaction
*requires catalyst
CH₄ + 4Cl₂ →(heat or light)→ CCl₄ + 4HCl
Formula for Alkane
Cn H₂n +2
(“n” number of carbons and there are two hydrogens attached to top and bottom of every carbon, plus 2 on the ends)
Formula for an Alkene
Cn H₂n
(Alkenes have a double bond so two hydrogens are removed Cn H₂n +2 -2, so the +2-2 can be cancelled out)
Formula for cyclic alkane
Cn H₂n
(cyclic alkanes connect in a circle so the two hydrogens on the ends are removed to attach the two end carbons together. Therefor the +2 -2 is cancelled out)
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