Aging Final Exam

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aging-in-place
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Elderly people that remain in the same home and community even after their health declines
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Planned housing
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Governmental agencies and others have planned low income or age segregated housing for older adults
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Independent housing
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most common type of elder housing; homeowners/renters
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Continuous care retirement communities
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provides a continuum of living options from independent living, enriched living, assisted living and skilled nursing home all in one campus
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Nursing home
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Custodial care for people who cannot live on their own
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Eden Alternative
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A paradigm for nursing home care that encourages active participation by residents and greater staff decision-making. It emphasizes the “home” aspect of nursing home
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Assisted living
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A housing model aimed at elders who need assistance with personal care (e.g., bathing, taking medication) but who are not so physically or cognitively impaired as to need 24-hour attention
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Medicaid waivers
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exceptions to state medicaid rules that allow use of medicaid funds for services that are traditionally not covered by medicaid such as chore services and home care
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Adult foster care
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Also called adult family homes, housing options that provide an alternative to nursing homes for adults who do not need 24-hour care.
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Home health care
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Provides nursing, therapy, personal care, or housekeeping services in patient’s own home
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Adult day care
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A program for impaired adults that attempts to meet their health, social, and functional needs in a setting away from their homes.
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Universal design
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A user-friendly approach to design in the living environment where people of any culture, age, size, weight, race, gender, and ability can experience an environment that promotes their health, safety, and welfare today and in the future.
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Productive aging
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any paid or unpaid activity that produces goods and services for the benefit of society- such as household tasks, child care, volunteerism, and contributing to family and neighbors, and which reciprocally benefits both elders and society
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Social security
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(FDR) 1935, guaranteed retirement payments for enrolled workers beginning at age 65; set up federal-state system of unemployment insurance and care for dependent mothers and children, the handicapped, and public health
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Age Discrimination in Employment Act
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This federal law was created to protect workers age 45 and over from denial of employment strictly because of age
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Pensions
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payments made to employees after they have retired, similar to a retirement plan; regulated by the Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA)
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Defined benefit pension
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plan in which the company promises to pay a certain annual amount (defined benefit) to the employee after retirement. The company bears the investment risk of the plan assets
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Supplemental Security Income
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A federal program that provides a minimum income to seniors and the disabled who do not qualify for social security.
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Spirituality
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An awareness of one’s inner self and a sense of higher connection to a higher being, nature, or some purpose greater than oneself. (Seeking to find understanding; can be more than just a belief in God.)
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Civic engagement
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a sense of concern among members of the political community about public, social, and political life, expressed through participation in social and political organizations
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Civic ventures
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provides guidance to elders seeking civic engagement opportunities and awards innovators and agencies working for common good
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Experience Corps
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sponsors school-based programs where older adults work one-on-one with children, create before and after school programs, and receive a modest stipend for their service
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Senior Companion Program
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trains low income adults age 60 and over to support their peers who are frail and disabled. in order to help them remain as independent as possible. (example stroke victim now handicapped and suffering from depression)
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Foster grandparents
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A volunteer program pairing seniors with children with special needs
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Elderhostel
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an education-travel program that offers people age 55 and older special learning experiences at universities and other locations across the US and around the world
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Generations united
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a national intergenerational coalition of over 30 organizations, including AARP, the Child Welfare League, and the Children’s Defense Fund
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Ethnicity
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A social division based on national origin, religion, language, and often race.
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Culture
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Beliefs, customs, and traditions of a specific group of people.
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Ethnogerontology
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study of causes, processes, and consequences of race, national origin, and culture on individual and population aging
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Double Jeopardy Hypothesis
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the hypothesis that aging persons of color are in jeopardy in our society due both to growing old and their racial status
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Crossover Effect
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the lower death rates among African Americans, APIs, and American Indians after age 75
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Health care disparities
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differences in the quality of health care provided to different populations
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Law of primogeniture
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Common law that established the birthright of the oldest son to inherit the family estate.
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Cultural competence
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An understanding of how a patient’s cultural background shapes his beliefs, values, and expectations for therapy.
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Gendered nature of the life course
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ways in which gender, which is socially constructed, influences women’s care giving, employment, income and retirement a cross the life course
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Dependent care credits
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a credit based on the taxpayer’s cost of caring for dependents either under age 13 or physically or mentally unable to care for themselves
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Earnings sharing
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proposed change in Social Security whereby each partner in a marriage is entitled to a separate Social Security account, regardless of employment status
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Entitlement programs
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Government benefits that certain qualified individuals are entitled to by law, regardless of need.
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Age-based entitlement programs
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programs only available to people of a certain age
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Need based entitlement programs
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social programs delivered to persons who meet defined criteria of eligibility based on economic need or the ability to pay for benefits
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Direct benefits
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monetary employee benefits (cash)
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Indirect benefits
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nonmonetary employee benefits such as health care and paid vacations
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Contributory plans
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programs providing benefits that require the beneficiary to contribute something toward the cost of the benefit
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Noncontributory plan
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retirement plan funded entirely by contributions from the employer
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Universal benefits
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benefits available as a social right to all persons belonging to a designated group
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Selective benefits
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Goods (such as information publications, travel discounts, and group insurance rates) that a group can restrict to those who pay their annual dues.
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Cost-of-living-adjustments
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an adjustment in wage rate paid to employees based on the consumer price index
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Privatization of social security
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individuals should control their own retirement accounts & be permitted to make specific decisions about how the account should be invested. people are allowed to invest some portion of the social security taxes they pay in private stock market accounts.
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Private pensions
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The major source of nongovernmental income support for retirees, in which the individual worker and the employer put a portion of each paycheck into an account to help finance retirement
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Title XX
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(for the social services Block Grant) funding for social services (e.g. homemaking chores, adult day care) based on need, not age
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Older Americans Act of 1965
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federal legislation to improve the lives of elders
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Area Agencies on Aging
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offices on aging at the regional and local levels that plan and administer services to meet the needs of older adults within that area; established and partially funded through the Older Americans Act
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Politics of entitlement
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political preferences, especially as applied to elders, for the allocation of resources based on the view of older persons as needy, worthy, and deserving of public support
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Politics of productivity
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political preferences for the allocation of resources based on the diversity of the aging population: well-off, poor, capable of continued productive work, or ill or disabled
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Intergenerational inequity
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the view that one generation or age-group receives benefits that are disproportional to those received by another, or are at the expense of other generations
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Generational investment
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investments made by one generation for the benefit of another, such as the payment of Social Security taxes by the working population for the benefit of retirees, the services provided by older persons for child care, and the payment of property taxes to benefit school children
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Medicare
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A federal program of health insurance for persons 65 years of age and older
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Medicare Part A
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The part of the Medicare program that pays for hospitalization, care in a skilled nursing facility, home health care, and hospice care.
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Medicare Part B
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-Pays for hospital outpatient physician and other professional services including OT services provided by independent practitioner
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Medicare Part D
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Medicare prescription drug reimbursement plans
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Medicaid
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A public assistance program designed to provide healthcare to poor Americans. (Compare to Medicare)
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Medicaid spend down
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seniors or disabled people whose incomes exceed the medicaid limit qualify if their medical bills equal or are greater than their ‘excess’ income
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Medigap supplemental insurance
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private supplemental insurance to help with the catastrophic costs of intensive care, numerous test, or extended hospitalization
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Long term care insurance
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Insurance coverage that provides a daily monetary benefit to people who are chronically ill and who require living assistance either at home or in a residential facility
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Health Maintenance Organizations
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group insurance that entitles members to services of participating hospitals and clinics and physicians
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Caregiving
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informal and unpaid care provided to a dependent person by family members, other relatives, or friends
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Objective burden
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daily physical demands and behavioral phenomena of caregiving
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Subjective burden
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the caregiver’s experience of caregiver burden; differential appraisal of stress, feelings
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Sandwich generation
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Group of people who are caring for both their parents and their children.
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Family and Medical Leave Act
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Passed after concluded proper child-raising,family stability, & job security require that employees get reasonable work leave for family, & medical reasons
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National family caregiver supply program
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prog provides a means of addressing the nation’s growing needs of caregivers
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Elder mistreatment
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includes abuse, neglect, exploitation or abandonment of older patients. Depression, dementia, and malnutrition are independent risk factors.
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Elder neglect
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acts of omission in the care and treatment of the elderly
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Self neglect
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Failure to provide for the self because of lack of ability, or lack of awareness, most common type of mistreatment
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Respite care
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A type of temporary health or medical care provided either by paid workers who come to the home or by a nursing facility where a patient stays to give a caregiver a short rest.
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The dying process
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pain, delirium, terminal restlessness, dyspnea and noisy respirations, nausea and vomiting, constipation, anorexia, fatigue are the signs, this is what elderly adults are most scared for, not actual death
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Dying person’s bill of rights
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affirms a person’s right to dignity, privacy, informed participation, and competent care
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Palliative care
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Care designed not to treat an illness but to provide physical and emotional comfort to the patient and support and guidance to his or her family.
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Hospice care
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Dying patients at home or in-patient, Nurses, Social Workers, Chaplains, Volunteers, Doctors, (PT and OT is optional), Medicare and Medicaid require that at least 80% of hospice care be provided at home, Eligibility for reimbursement includes: Medicare eligibility, certification by physician for terminal illness (less than or equal to 6 months of life)
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Hastened death
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It means ending one’s life earlier than would have happened without intervention. It involves speeding up the dying process, which can entail withholding or withdrawing treatment or life support.
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Informed consent
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A written agreement to participate in a study made by an adult who has been informed of all the risks that participation may entail.
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Passive euthanasia
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A situation in which a seriously ill person is allowed to die naturally, through the cessation of medical intervention
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Active euthanasia
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A situation in which someone takes action to bring about another person’s death, with the intention of ending that person’s suffering.
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Assisted suicide
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Providing a seriously ill person with the means to commit suicide.
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Advance directive
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A DNR order; instructions written in advance of an event
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Living will
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A document that indicates what medical intervention an individual wants if he or she becomes incapable of expressing those wishes.
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Patient self determination act
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A federal law passed in 1990 that requires hospitals and other health care providers to provide written information to patients regarding their rights under state law to make medical decisions and execute advance directives.
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Uniform health care decision act
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Promotes autonomous decision making by acknowledging individuals’ right to make health care decision in all circumstances
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Durable power of attorney
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a legal agreement that allows an agent or representative of the patient to act on behalf of the patient
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Medical power of attorney
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gives another person the power to make healthcare decisions for you if you can’t
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Guardianship
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occurs when someone legally has the authority to make decisions for and care for and control all of the property of someone
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Compassion and Choices
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formed in 2005 when several national end-of-life organizations; merged to become the largest and most comprehensive organization of its type.
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Bereavement
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Loss, due to death, of someone to whom one feels close and the process of adjustment to the loss
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Widowhood
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A label applied to both men and women who survive the death of a spouse
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Elders in suburban communities
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are likely to have higher income, better functional health, not live alone, and lower access to public transportation
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percent of the population age 65 and over occupied a nursing home.
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4-5%
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Older people are more likely than any other age group
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to occupy houses that they own free of a mortgage
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Mandatory retirement age in the U.S.
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none
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A person aged 65-74 with income of >$40,000, and in a rural community is most likely to live
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in their own home
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The average Social Security benefit is about
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$955 per month
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The most common type of housing for older adults is
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traditional independent housing as 93% of those 65 and older live in such housing.
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The timing of retirement is affected by
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adequate retirement income, family and gender roles, ethnic and minority status
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72% of nursing home clients are
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women
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Employment Retirement Income Security Act
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enacted in 1974 to strengthen private pensions by being the first comprehensive effort to reform them
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Older persons in rural areas interact more with neighbors and friends than do those in
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urban settings
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The percentage of men 65+ who are remaining in the workforce today, compared to the 1950s is
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lower
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Females who serve as family caregivers usually report lower levels of
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depression and anxiety, and higher life satisfaction than do their male counterparts.
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Caregiver stress is increased by
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the availability of formal services
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Over 80% of older adults with limitations in three or more activities of daily living are able to
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live in the community, primarily because of informal assistance
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Widowed women are more likely than widowed men to
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experience financial hardships
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Adults daughters typically provide more
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direct care for older parents than do adult sons
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Older widows are generally worse off than widowers in terms of
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finances, years of education, legal problems, and prospects of marriage
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African American caregivers
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ethnic groups is least likely to report stress, burden, and depression in the caregiver role
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Over 80% of respondents in Gallup polls believe that ill patients should be able to
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request that doctors terminate treatment
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Indian Health Service (IHS)
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A federal program that provides health care for Native Americans and Alaskans of all ages through hospitals and community clinics
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This is the poorest group among older adults
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Older women of color
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American indians
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may have the poorest health of all older adults due, in part, to inadequate housing conditions and the isolation of many of their communities.
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A major reason that some Hispanics do not seek out social services such as Social Security or Medicare is
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they may have been illegal immigrants
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Although African Americans are the largest population of color, only about
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8% of them are over age 65, compared to 15% of the white population
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Older American Indian elders who live in urban areas tend to have
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better health than those on reservations
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Women are les likely than men to
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receive private pensions
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Today, ethnic minorities comprise ___ of the population over age 65
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17%
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Women comprise over
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70% of the nursing home population
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A major source of social and emotional support for African Americans, outside of family, is
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the church
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Among older women, the risk of poverty is greatest among
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women of color
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the major reason that older women have less access to group health insurance of their own is because they
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were less likely to be employed when they were young
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The average age of widowhood for women is ___ years
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59
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In 2007, over 33% of federal spending went toward
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senior benefits
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On average, Social Security’s older recipients receive about ___ percent of their working income
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40%
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Social Security payroll taxes have risen from a combined 3% on employer and employees in the 1950s to
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12.4% now
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New proposals to privatize Social Security are characterized by
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expectations that individuals can invest more wisely then the government
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Which of the following statements is true about the funding of the current long-term care system
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It focuses on acute care and is dominated by institutional care.
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Supplemental Security Income (SSI) benefits the population on a(n) ___ basis.
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noncontributory
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societal values have influenced the development of public policy for aging Americans
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Individual welfare is the person’s own responsibility, The community should help with individual welfare, Citizens are universally entitled to have their needs met.
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Medigap policies fill which of the following gaps in Medicare coverage
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items and services not covered by medicare

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