African Imperialism DBQ

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Mfecane
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South of the Limpopo river Africans saw devastating internal welfare, depopulation, and forced migrations of many Bantu peoples this was known as the crushing era. It was marked by the rapid rise of sizable military states among North Nguni (speaking Bantu) and because of this there was widespread chaos, death, emigration, and multi ethnic states.
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Shaka
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The Nguni warrior-king formed military states and the most important was formed by Shaks (his successor). Shaka was the leader of the ZUlu nation and kingdom, his brutal military tactics led to Zulu conquest of a cast domination in southeastern Africa this caused depopulation, widespread suffering and death adn the creation of diverse new states.
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Great Trek
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1835-1841 was a migration of Boer pioneers who were north from British-ruled Cape Colony trying to establish their own independent republics. They brought about 6,000 Afrikaners from the Cape Colony northeastward into more fertile regions, this caused the creation of Afrikaners republics of the Orange Free State and the South African Republic north of the Vaal.
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Lesotho
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Moshoeshwe was the king and founder Lesotho survived as long as he did, it was considered the most famous new state. Moshoeshwe defended his people from the Zulu attacks and held off Afrikaners, missionaries and the British until he died.
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Usman Dan Fodio
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The leader of the most important jihad movement (beginning at the nineteenth century) he was a Fulbe Muslim scholar from Hausa territory. Influenced by reformist ideas and he gathered an immense army of fervent supporters and conquered most of the Hausa lands of modern Nigeria bringing Islamic order.
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Fulbe
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They are carriers of Islam who conquered Nigeria and became the ruling class in the Hausa regions, and Islam spread into the countryside, where it predominates.
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Mahdi
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A redeemer who will appear on earth and establish a just society before the final judgement. It’s central to Shiite belief and controversial to other branches of Isl,a. There as a Mahdist uprising outside of West Africa, it provided the focus for resistance to the Italian invasion, Muhammad Ahmad declared himself the Mahdi and led northern Sudan in rebellion against Ottoman-Egyptian control.
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David Livingstone
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One of the great European explorers, a Scottish Presbyterian, abolitionist and physician he accompanied Henry Morton Stanley near Lake Tanganyika in 1871
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Scramble for Africa
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Began in the late 19th century, the french invaded Algeria and the Europeans settled on choice farmlands and better native resistance fighters, the Europeans wanted natural resources and industrial markets from Africa. Great Britain and France tried to include African lands in their imperial domains and by World War I the entire continent was divided into territories
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Indirect Rule
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The British practice of administering African colonial political structures and leaders. British colonial officials put British men at the top of the existing African political structures and ruled through local leaders because the British taxpayers didn’t want to fund colonial ventures since British colonial official could afford to pay the salaries.
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Mutesa
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A Baganda King who benefited from European interest in his territory, direct armed resistance was widespread and continues into the twentieth century and colonial rule was the product of ongoing conflict and negotiation between European desires, baked up by technological superiority and enduring Mutesa’s power.
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Mau Mau
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An uprising that began as a protest against land alienation among Kenya’s Kikuyu people and through the course of the 1950s tens of thousand of Kenyans were killed the British imprisoned many more suspected insurgents and sympathizers in detention camps, while the Mau Mau revolt became a nationalist insurgency.
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Negritude
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An important countervailing rend was the emergence of movements seeking to transcend both colonial boundaries and ethnic divisions and foster an inclusive African identity one of which was Negritude. It was a literary and intellectual movement that began among African students to celebrate every aspect of African civilization.
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Leopold Senghor
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The first president of Senegal who through his writings exemplified Negritude and gave efforts in trying to celebrate every aspect of African civilization.
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New Imperialism
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After 1870 European states exerted control over about a fifth of the world’s land area and a tenth of its population, it was an extension of Western political and economic dominance to Asia, the Middle East, and Africa.
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Berlin Conference of 1884-1885
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The German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck called a conference in Berlin in 1884-1885 that mapped out a European-controlled Africa, the African colonies had become both trophies for European powers and possible bargaining chips in their economic and political competition with each other. Also there was no African present
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Khedives
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A Muslim dynasty who tried to modernize Egypt by building new harbors, roads, and a European-style army, they borrowed money to do so and because of this the Egyptian government became dependent on European creditors.
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Belgian Congo
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During the Scramble for Africa the lands drained by the vast Congo River became the property of King Leopold II, he recruited the English-born journalist Henry Morton Stanley to undertake a major expedition into the Congo. He made treaties on Leopold’s behalf with local rulers who had no idea what they were signing .
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Henry Morgan Stanley
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An English-born journalist and explorer who undertook an expedition into the Congo, who convinced local rulers along the Congo to sign treaties on King Leopold the II’s behalf and the rulers didn’t know or understand what they were signing. He also generated a great deal of publicity for his efforts to find abolitionist-turned-explorer David Livingstone.
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Heart of Darkness
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Joseph Conrad’s Novel on the cruelties in the Congo, they were recorded for the prosperity in photograph’s, eyewitness accounts, and newspaper articles and by an official Belgian commissioned, this exploitation carried out halved the population of the Congo in just thirty years.
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Ghana
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Established the model for Sahelian empires in western Sudan, it lay between the inland Niger Delta and the upper Senegal and its capital is Kumbi, Ghana was regional power near the end of the first millennium. The rulers were all through the previous king’s sister, reports indicate that the king was supreme judge and held court regularly to hear grievances, king held many ceremonies to be divinely blessed. It was also the 1st sub-Saharan country.
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Yakubu Gawon
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He took over when the leader of coup d’etat’s leader was assassinated. Gawon was overthrown by another military commander in 1975 and the ensuing years of Nigeria was plagued by political instability at the top, with its leadership passing usually from one military ruler to another.
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Biafara
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In may 1967, the eastern provinces assembly empowered its leader to form a new, independent state of Biafra, they secured arms and support from France, South Africa, and Portugal and developed successful worldwide propaganda depicting itself as a small brave Christian country fighting for its survival against a hostile Muslim central government. The next two years saw a tragic civil war and larger federal forces slowly took away the Biafran state.
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Wole Soyinka
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A nobel laureate author who led protest demonstrations against the military government in 1994, despite his efforts they assassinated \”Ken\” Saro-Wiwa and finally military rule was replaced in 1999 under an elected president (Olusegun Obasanjo).
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Apartheid
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Referring to racist policies enforced by the white-dominated regime that existed in South Africa from 1948 to 1992. The union of South Africa was governed under Apartheid, the white minority ran the county maintaining economic and political control and privilege. There was worldwide opposition to this and as a result South Africa was isolated.
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Bantustans
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In the 1960s and the 1970s the government created three tiny \”independent homelands\” for blacks so that they could be treated as immigrant \”foreigners\” in the parts of South Africa where there was a lot of work, the international community refused to recognize the Bantustans or homelands.
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Desmond Tutu
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He was an equalist who worked against Apartheid’s with the Anglican bishop and was awarded a nobel prize in 1984. In 1986 many nations responded to Tutu’s call and imposed economic sanctions against the government.
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FW de Klerk
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In 1990 he began lifting the ban on the African National Congress, the main anti-apartheid organization, and releasing ANC leader Nelson Mandela after twenty-seven years of imprisonment, revealing the Separate Amenities act (the legal basis for segregation in public places)
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Nelson Madela
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He was elected president of what Desmond Tutu called the Rainbow Nation in honor of South Africa’s racial and political diversity. He shared a Nobel Prize with De Klerk when they led the endorsement of a new interim constitution
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Truth and Reconciliation Comission
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They were established in 1995 and offered an unprecedented way to come to terms with the country’s past, instead of attempting to bring to justice the many perpetrators of human rights abuses during the apartheid era. Their premises was controversial (some victims of apartheid atrocities protested that their prosecutors were evading punishment) but it is unlikely that any other mechanism could have generated a more comprehensive account of the apartheid’s abuses
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Patrice Lumumba
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The prime minister of Congo when they gained independence, Joseph Kasavubu was president at the time and tried to dismiss Lumumba from office but Lubumba refused and in the next crisis the Congolese Army’s chief of staff Joseph-Desire Mobutu overthrew them both and Lumumba was assassinated in 1961.
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Joseph-Desire Mobutu
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The Congolese Army’s chief of staff who overthrew Lumumba and Kasavubu. Mobutu had the backing of the U.S, the Central Intelligence Agency, and he kept the power for more than thirty years, he outlawed all political parties except his own (this was the Popular Movement of the Revolution). He also launched the Authenticite campaign to celebrate African culture and He renamed the country of Congo to Zaire.
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Democratic Republic of the Congo
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Congo was renamed the Democratic Republic of Congo, it is immense and possesses vast natural resources, especially valuable minerals and their future is uncertain, fighting continues, much infrastructure has been destroyed, and most citizen understandably mistrust their government.
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Rwandan Genocide
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This violence was usually labeled as Tutsi vs Hutu and on April 6th 1994 a helicopter carrying the Hutu presidents of Rwanda and Burundi was shot down over Rwanda’s capital, killing both presidents the Tutsis were blamed, this started the interethnic civil war. As a result over 800,000 Tutsis were killed in a massive genocide.
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Paul Kgame
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Elected president in 2003 even though he had been criticized for stifling dissent, his administration had been marked by some democratic and economic progress. The average income tripled from 1999 to 2009, and in 2008 Rwanda became the first county with a majority of women elected to its legislature.
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HIV/AIDS
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In 2008 22.4 million people in sub-Saharan Africa were living with HIV, the infection rates are highest in southern Africa and lowest in West Africa. Many countries went public searching for help with the disease and on the other hand South African President Mbeki publicly questioned whether HIV causes AIDS and made statements that contributed to and atmosphere of denial and shame surrounding HIV/AIDS in South Africa.
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Ellen Sirleaf-Johnson
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Women were active anticolonial and anti-apartheid movement took leadership roles in some post-independence rebellions and only since the mid-1990s have women been elected into parliaments and other national offices. Ellen Sirleaf-Johnson was elected president of Liberia in 2005 and was the first women elected to lean an African nation.
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AGCI
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President George W. Bush supported the African Global Competitiveness Initiative (AGCI) to build sub-Saharan Africa’s capacity for trade and competitiveness, a factor of rapidly growing importance is trade with CHina, African economies still need to grow tremendously to meet their population’s’ needs.

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