Adolescence chapters 8-10

Reciprocal Socialization
process by which children and adolescents socialize parents
The family can be thought of as a
constellation of subsystems. each family member is a participant in several subsystems

a behavior of one family member changes can effect the others

A studied aspect of family system is the link between marital relationships and parenting
findings are that happily married parents are more sensitive responsive warm and affectionate toward their children and adolescents
link between marital relationships and parenting
positive family climate for adolescents involve both effective parenting and positive relationship between parents

longitudinal study showed that positive family climate was linked to the degree of positive engagement the adol. showed toward their own spouses almost 20 years later

adolescent changes
conflict between parents and adolescents espeically between mothers and sons is the most stressful during the peak of pubertal growth

earlier to maturation the more conflict with their parents

parents as managers
parents assume important roles as effective managers-who find information, make contacts, help choices and provide guidance.

regulators of opportunities for the adol. social contact with peers, friends, and adults

family management practices are positively related to students to students grades and self responsibilty

diana baumrind four styles of parenting
are associated with different aspects of adolescents social behavior
restrictive punitive
demanding controling rejecting unresponsive
parents encourage adolescents to be independent but still place limits and controls on their actions

demanding controling accepting responsive

parent is very uninvolved in the adolescents life
undemanding uncontroling rejecting unresponsive
parents are highly involved with their adol. but place few demands on them
accepting responsive undemanding uncontroling
in general researchers have found authoritative parenting
to be related to positive aspects of development
parenting styles and ethnicity
research with ethnic groups suggests that some aspects of the authoritarian style may be associated with positive child outcomes
autonomy and attachment
the adult attachment interview AAI is often used to assess secure and insecure attachment in adults
individuals are classified into one of the four categories
unresolved/ disorganized
The most consistent outcomes of secure attachment in adolescents involve
positive peer relationships and development of the adolescents emotion regulation capacities
old model of parent adolescent relationships suggest that
as adolescents mature they detach themselves from their parents and move into a world of autonomy apart from parents
parent adolescent conflict is intense and stressful throughout adolescence
new model emphasizes that
parents serve as important attachment figures resources and support systems as adolescents explore a wider more complex social world
in the majority of families parent adolescent conflict is moderate rather than severe and that everyday negotiations and minor disputes are normal
Three important characteristics of sibling relationships


emotional quality of the relationship
familiarity and intimancy of the relationship
variation in sibling relationships
adolescents adjustment in divorced families
show poorer adjustment than their counterparts, those who have experiences multiple divorces are at greater risk
predivorce period
a time when the parents are often in active conflict with each other
emotion security theory
cummings and his collegues have proposed emotion security theory which states that children appraise marital conflict in terms of their sense of security and safety in the family

a distinction is made between marital conflict that is negative for children and marital conflict that can be positive for children

Most adolescents completely cope with their parents divorce
and do not have significant adjustment problems
family processes matter a great deal when
divorced parents have a harmonious relationship and use authoritative parenting adjustment of adolescents is improved
conflict between divorced parents was liked to emotional problems insecure social relationships and antisocial behavior in adolescents
a secure attachment also matters
a disequilibrium including diminished parenting skills occurs in the year following the divorce
however by two years after the divorce restabilization has occured and parenting skills have improved
factors involved in the adolescents individual risk vulnerability in a divorced family
adolescents adjustment prior to the divorce personality and temperament developmental status custody gender relocation
whether a divorce occurs earlier or later in childrens or adolescents development is linked
to the types of problems the children and adolescents are likely to develop
adolescents in stepfamilies have more
adjustment problems than their counterparts in nondivorced families
boundary ambiguity
uncertainty in stepfamilies about who is performing or responsible for certain tasks in the family system
there is an increase in adjustment problems in newly
remarried family
adolescents who had been in a simple stepfamily for a number of years were
adjusting better than in the early years of the remarried family
also functioning well in comparision with adolescents in conflicted nondivorced families and adolescents in complex stepfamilies
children esp. girls of working mothers engage in less gender stereotyping
and have more eglitarian views of gender
latchkey adolescents
typically do not see their parents from the time they leave for school in the morning until 6 or 7 at night
without limits and parental supervison children find their way into more trouble,
parental monitoring and authoritative parenting help the adolescent to cope more effectively with latchkey experiences espcially in resisting peer pressure
children and adol. who are adopted early in their lives are more likely to have
positive outcomes than their counterparts adopted later in life
in general adopted children and adolescents are more likely to experience
psychological and school related problems than nonadopted children
vast majority of adopted children and adolescents adjust effectively
adopted children and foster care
adopted children and adol. fare much better than children and adol. in long tern foster care or in an institutional environment
keys to effectively parenting adopted children
many of the keys to effectively parenting adopted children are no different than those for effectively parenting biological childrenbe supportive and caring
be involved and monitor the adolescents behavior and whereabouts
be a good communicator
help the adolescent learn to develop self control
gays and lesbians are increasingly choosing parenthood through donor insemination or adoption
children and adolescents created through new reproctive technologies are as well adjusted as their counterparts
competent adolescent development
competent adolescent develipment is most likely to happen when adolescent have parents who show them warmth and respect
demonstrate sustained interest in their lives
recognize and adopt to their changing cognitive and socieomotional development
communicate expectations for high standards of conduct and achievement
display authoritative constructive ways of dealing with problems and conflict
carnegie council on adolescent development identified some key opportunities for improving social policy
School, cultural arts, religious and youth organizations, and health-care agencies should examine the extent to which they involve parents in activities with adolescents and should develop ways to engage parents and adolescents in activities they both enjoy.
Professionals such as teachers, psychologists, nurses, physicians, youth specialists, and others who have contact with adolescents need not only to work with the individual adolescent but also to increase the time they spend interacting with the adolescent’s family.
Employers should extend to the parents of young adolescents the workplace policies now reserved only for the parents of young children.
Community institutions such as businesses, schools, and youth organizations should become more involved in providing after-school programs.
peer contexs
peer interaction is influenced by contexts, which can include the type of peer the adolescent interacts with and the situation or location where they are

peer contexts also are infuenced by such factors as how effectively parents manage adolescents peer interactions and whether adults are present

individual difference factors
among the wide range of factors of individual differences that can affect peer relations are personality traits

one individual differences that has be found to impair peer relationships is the trait of negative emotionality which involves a very low threshold for experiencing anger fear anxiety and irritation
other factors include the adolescents openness to peer influence and the status/power of the other adolescent or peer group

peer influences can be positive
adolescents explore the principles of fairness and justice by working through disagreements with peers
adolescents learn to be skilled and sensitive partners in intimate relationships by forging close friendships
peer influences can be negative
rejection and neglect by peers are related to an individuals subsequent mental health
for some adolescents, the peer culture can be corrupt influence that undermines parental values and control
researchers found that college students with risky social networks were 10 times more likely to engage in heavy drinking
peer pressure
around 8th and 9 th grades conformity to peers especially to their antisocial standards peaks

adolescents who are uncertain about their social identity which can appear in the form of low self esteem and high social anxiety are most likely to conform to peers

peers are also more likely to conform when they are in the presence of someone they perceive to have higher status than they do.

sociometric status
extent to which children and adolescents are liked or disliked by their peer groups

sociometric status is typically assessed by asking children to rate how much they like or dislike each of their classmates

it may also be assessed by asking children and adolescents to nominate the peers they like the most and those they like the least

the five types of peer statuses
popular children- are fequently nominated as a best friend and are rarely disliked by their peers

average children- receive an average number of both positive and negative nominations from their peers

neglected children- are infrequently nominated as best friend but are not disliked by their peers

rejected children- are infrequently nominated as someone’s best friend and are actively disliked by their peers

controversial children- are frequently nominated both as someones best friend and as being disliked

popular children
give out reinforcements
listen carefully
maintain open lines of communication with peers
are happy
control their negative emotions
show enthusiasm and concern or others
are self confident without being conceited
short responce
three reasons why aggressive peer rejected boys have problems in social relationships
they are more impulsive and have problems sustaining attention
they are more emotionally reactive
they have fewer social skills in making friends and maintaining positive relationships with peers
social cognitive perspective of peer relations
as children move into adolescence they aquire more social knowledge

there is considerable individual variation in how much one adolescent knows about what it takes to make friends to get peers to like him or her

in a recent study social intelligence was related to peer popularity but not to academic achievement

from a social cognitive perspective children and adolescents may have difficulty in peer relations because they lack appropriate social cognitive skills

five steps in processing information about the social world


dodge argues that adolescents go through five steps in processing information about their social world

decoding of social cues
response search
selection of an optimal response

strategies for improving social skills
conglomerate strategies involve the use of a combination of techniques rather than a single approach to improve adolescents social skills

a cong. strategy might consist of – demonstration or modeling of appropriate social skills, discussion and reasoning about social skills

social skills training programs
have generally been more successful with children 10 years or younger than with adolescents

once an adolescent gains a negative reputation among peers the peer group attitude is often show to change, even after the adolescents behavior had been corrected
skills interventions may need to be supplemented by efforts to change the minds of peers

cooperative group training

sullivan’s theory of adolescent friendships
has been the most influential theorist in the study of adolescent friendships

everyone has basic social needs and whether or not these needs are fulfilled largely determines our emotional well-being

during adolescence, friends become increasingly important in meeting social needs

need for intimacy intensifies during early adolescence motivating teenagers to seek out close friends

if adolescents failed to forge such close friendships they experience loneliness and a reduced sense of self worth

small groups that range from 2- 12 individuals and average about 5 to 6 individuals
members are usually of the same sex and similar in age
form because adolescents engage in similar activities such as being in a club together or on a sports team
are larger and less personal than cliques
usually members of a crow based on reputation
three stages in the development of romantic relationships


the three stages that characterize the development of romantic relationships are
entry into romantic attractions and affiliations 11-13, triggered by puberty, developing a crush is common

exploring romantic relationships 14-16, casual dating and dating in groups

consolidation dyadic romantic bonds 17-19, strong emotional bonds more closely resembling those in adult romantic relationships

romantic love
also called passionate love, has strong sexual and infatuation component, and often predominates in the early part of a love relationship
characterizes most adolescent love
also extremely important among college students
affectionate love
also called companionate love, occurs when individuals desire to have another person near and have a deep caring affection for that person
there is a strong belief that affectionate love is more characteristic if adult love than adolescent love
attachment history and relationships
attachment history is linked to couple relationships in adolescence
adolescents with a secure attachment to parents are likely to approach romantic relationhips expecting closeness warmth intimacy
they are likely to fell comfortable developing close, intimate romantic relationships

adolescent observations of their parents marital relationship also contribute to their own construction of dating relationships

parents are likely to be more involved or interested in their daughters dating patterns and relationships than their sons

peer relationships friendships also provide the opportunity to learn modes of relating that are carried over into romantic relationships

dating scripts
cognitive models that adolescents and adults use to guide and evaluate dating interactions
first dater were highly scripted along gender lines
males a proactive dating script females a reactive script
dictates about dating in various cultures
the sociocultural context exerts a powerful influence on adolescent dating and on mate selection
values and religious beliefs in various cultures often dictate :
age at which dating begins
how much freedom is allowed
extent to which dates are chaperoned by parents or other adults
respective roles of males and females in dating

in the arab world asian countries and south american adults typically are highlt restrictive of adolescent girls romantic relationships

immigrants to the us have brought these standards with them

constructivist approach
learner centered approach which emphasized the importance of individuals actively constructing their knowledge and understanding with guidance from the teacher

students should be encouraged to explore their world discover knowledge reflect and think critically with careful monitoring and meaning guidance from the teacher

emphasis on collaboration

direct instruction approach
structured teacher centered approach that is characterized by
teacher direction and control
high teacher expectations for students progress
maximum time spent by students on academic tasks
efforts by the teacher to keep negative affect to a minimum
an important goal is maximizing student learning time
criticisms of both approaches
advocates of the constructivist approach direct instruction approach turns students into passive learners and does not adequately challenge them to think in critical and creative ways

direct instruction enthusiasts constructivist approaches do not give enough attention to the content of a discipline and that constructivist approaches are too relativistic and vague

criticisms of NCLB legislation
critics argue that the NCLB legislation is doing more harm than good. using a single test as the sole indicator students progress and competence presents a very narrow view of students skills.
some critics stress that NCLB relfects social policy that focus only on academic reforms and ignores the social aspects of school
common core standards
initiative was endorsed by the national governors association in an effort to implement more rigorous state guidelines for educating students
common core standards specify what students should know and the skills they should develop at each grade level in various content areas
top-dog phenomenon
moving from being oldest, biggest and most powerful students in elementary school to being the youngest smallest and least powerful students in the middle or junior high school
less stressful when students have positive relationships with friends and go through the transition in team oriented schools in which 20- 30 students take the same classes together
causes of dropping out of high school
students drop out of school for school related economic family related peer related and personal reasons

school related problems consistently associated with dripping out of school. students from low income families are more likely to drop out than those from middle income families
many dropouts have friends who are also dropouts
approximately 1/3 girls drop for reasons such as pregnancy or marriage

strategies for reducing the drop out rate
most effective programs provided early reading programs tutoring counseling and mentoring
importance of creating caring environments and relationships an offered community service opportunities
early detection of children school related diffuclties and getting children and youth engaged with school in positive ways
strategies for classroom management
authoritative strategy- encourages students to be independent thinkers and doers but still involves effective monitoring

authoritarian strategy- restrictive and punitive with the focus manily on keeping order rather than on instruction and learning

permissive strategy- offers students considerable autonomy but provides them with little support for developing skills or managing their behavior

person-environment fit
eccles argues that a lack of fit between the middle/junior high environment and the needs of young adolescents produces increasingly negative self-evaluations and attitudes toward school
victims of bullying and effects of bullying
anxious, socially withdrawn aggressive children are often the victims of bullying

bullies and their victims in adolescence were more likely to experience depression and engage in suicide ideation and attempt suicide than their counterparts

outcomes of participation in extra curricular activities
participation in extracurricular activities is linked to higher grades, school engagement, less likelihood of dropping out, improved probability of going to college, higher self esteem, lower rates of depression, delinquency, an substance abuse

adolescents benefit from a breadth of extracurricular activities more than they do when they focus on a single extracurricular activities the stronger the link is the positive development outcomes

characteristics of schools in low income areas
many adolescents in poverty face problems that present barriers to their learning
compared with schools in higher income areas schools in low income areas are more likely to
have more students with low grades, low graduation rates, small percentages of students going to college, more likely to have teachers with less experience, nonqualified teachers, more subsitute teachers, more likely to encourage route learning, do not provide adequate support for English language learners
ethnicity in schools
many of the inner city schools are still segreated are underfunded, and do not provide adequate opportunities for children to learn effectively

almost 1/3 african americans and latino students are in schools with 90 minority groups
us schools are doing an especially poor job of meeting the needs of america’s fastest growing minority population latinos
highschool graduation rate for latino lags behind that for any other ethnic minority group except native americans

written strategies for improving relationships among ethnically diverse students
know 4 of them
turn the class into a jigsaw classroom, in which students from different cultural backgrounds are placed in a cooperative group

encourage students to engage in perspective taking

encourage students to have positive personal contact with other diverse students

help students think critically and be emotionally intelligent about cultural issues

reduce bias

multicultural education
education that values diversity and includes the perspectives of a variety of cultural groups

its proponents believe that children and youth of color should be empowered and that multicultural education benefits all students

an important goal is equal educational opportunity for all students

multicultural education grew out of the civil rights movement of the 1960 and the call for equality

increasing trend not to make ethnicity a focal point but to also include socioeconomic status gender religion and other forms of differences

1. All of the following are key opportunities for improving social policy identified by the Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development EXCEPT
a. professionals who work with adolescents should aim to increase their contact time with the adolescents and decrease the time that they spend with the parents.
b. community institutions should become more involved in providing after-school programs.
c. employers should extend the benefits now afforded to parents of young children to parents of adolescents.
d. All of these are recommendations.
Social-skills training programs have been generally most successful with individuals who are
a. in early adolescence.
b. age 10 and under.
c. in middle adolescence.
d. in emerging adulthood.
Which of the following refers to the fit between middle/junior high school and the needs of young adolescents?
a. Person-environment fit
b. Goodness of fit
c. Temperament match
d. Nature and nurture

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