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Abnormal Psychology (Chapters 1-7)

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Genes
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the hardware of a computer system
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Epigenetics,
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Software/program that’s designed to do something (it is dependent on the hardware though)
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Diathesis
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Vulnerability/predisposition
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Norepinephrine (Noradrenaline)
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Stress hormone
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Serotonin
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• Behavior, moods, thought processes (low = more risk for impulsivity) • Low— it’s concentration issues and energy, high anxiety, and depression (your mind is spent so much on trying to levy up your emotions) • Too High— Manic state, overly elevated mood, concentration issues
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Dopamine
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• Pleasure seeking (among many other things) • Too High—- Psychosis (Schizophrenia), • Too Little— Parkinson’s Disease
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Reliability:
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the degree to which a measurement is consistent
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Validity:
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Whether something measures what it is designed to measure
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ABC’s of Observation
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Antecedent Behavior Consequence
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Antecendent
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One of the ABC’s of Observation. What happened just before the behavior (IE: mom asking boy to put cup in sink)
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The Behavior
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One of the ABC’s of Observation. The Behavior (IE: Boy throws glass across room)
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Consequence
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Last ABC’s of Observation What happened after? (IE: Mother’s response to boy’s actions)
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Informal observation
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Relies on an observer’s recollection, and interpretation of factual events
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Formal observation
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Identifying specific behaviors that are observable, and measurable (aka operational definition)
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Comorbidity
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When more than one psychological disorder is diagnosed at the same time
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False Positives
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When a test shows no problem when it does exist.
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False Negatives
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When a test shows a problem although no difficulty is present.
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Generalized biological vulnerability
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Example: Tendency to be uptight or high-strung based on birth/familiy heritable contribution to negative affect (irritable, driven/ glass is half empty)
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Generalized psychological vulnerability
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Example: You might grow up believing the world is a dangerous place and not be able to cope when things go wrong for you… Physical sensations are potentially dangerous
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Specific psychological vulnerability
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Example: You learn early experience such as being taught by your parents, that some objects are very dangerous (even if they actually aren’t) Sense that events are uncontrollable/unpredictable
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GAD (Generalized Anxiety Disorder)
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At least 6 months of excessive anxiety and worry and that it’s difficult to turn off or control the process of worrying.. *** This is what is a pathological worrier not just normal 2/3 are FEMALE It is CHRONIC
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Anxiety Treatments: Psychological
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Designated treatments that force patients to face their anxious feelings head on. Teaching patients how to relax deeply to combat tension. They teach them to counteract and work through the worry process. They teach acceptance instead of avoidance of these anxious thoughts and feelings.
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Anxiety Treatments: Benzodiazepines
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Carry the risk: people aren’t alert on them. (adults fall a lot and fracture hips…); seem to produce psych/physical dependence making it difficult for people to stop when on them So they are the most effective when used short time during a particularly stressful event: such as family problem/death etc. Drugs are effective but psychological treatments are more effective long term. (actually helping them feel the anxiety rather than avoiding it)
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Panic Disorder
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Severe panic attacks; start at usually mid-teens to about 40 years of age 75% or more are women.
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Agoraphobia
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The fear of these panic attacks; They try to put themselves in a place that is the safest around the safest people in fear that they might have a panic attach. Fear and avoidance of situations in which a person feels unsafe or unable to escape in the event of a developing panic symptoms/physical symptoms (they never know when it’s going to happen) they never want to leave their house because of it. Or go anywhere. They are so afraid of not being in control so they never want to leave anywhere. Typical places/situations avoided by people with agoraphobia: Shopping malls, cars, buses, trains, subways, wide streets, tunnels, restaurants, theaters, escalators, elevators, planes, crowds, stores, supermarkets, waiting in line, staying at home alone, being far from home. **These people avoid anything that might even create an anxious sensation: some even avoid exercise because it increases heart rate and sweat which scares them. 2/3 of patients are women.
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**** Panic attacks are the AVOIDANCE OF :
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Interoceptive: sensations Agoraphobia: places
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Four major sub-classifications of phobias
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1. Blood/injection/injury type phobia 2. Situational type (planes, enclosed places, elevators etc.) 3. Environment type (heights, storms, water etc.) 4. Animal type 5. “other” (phobias that don’t fit into any other type)
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Claustrophobia is a ______ phobia
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Situational Phobia
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You are afraid of water, heights or storms you have a ______ phobia
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Environment Phobia
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How is a phobia created?
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1. Traumatic conditioning experience (even hearing about a frightening moment can do it for some people) 2. Inherit tendency 3. Must believe that it is possible to happen again
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SAD (Social Anxiety Disorder)
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#2 Anxiety disorder in the world. * as many as 12.1% of population suffer from SAD at some point (Sex ratio 50:50)
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Selective Mutism
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Rare childhood disorder, with a lack of speech in one or more settings in which speaking is socially expected. Example: they can speak in the home, but they can’t speak in public settings like school. *100% of the children in the study met criteria for SAD too.
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PTSD
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Exposure to traumatic experiences witnessing death, or threatened death, actual or threatened serious injury, or actual or threatened sexual violation. ******Cannot be diagnosed until a month after the incident
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Acute Stress Disorder
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This is PTSD, but the first wave of it within the first month of the incident. It is the severe immediate reaction. 50% of those who have Acute Stress Disorder develop into PTSD.
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Attachment Disorders Children are unable or unwilling to form relationships with caregiving adults. (due to inadequate or abusive child-rearing practices- such as multiple homes/families/foster parents etc. )*** a high stressing situation
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Reactive Attachment Disorder:
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child very seldom seeks caregiver for protection, support or nurturance and doesn’t respond when caregiver does give these things.
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Disinhibited Social Engagement Disorder:
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Early persistent harsh punishment; pattern of behavior which child shows no inhibitions whatsoever to approaching adults; child shows complete willingness to accompany any adult no matter how unfamiliar somewhere without ever checking with the parent/guardian.
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OCD
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The devastating accumulation of anxiety disorders; they may be experiencing all of the symptoms of the above anxieties; danger is an event in a thought, image or impulse that the client attempts to avoid as completely as someone with a snake phobia voids snakes.
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Obsessions
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Intrusive nonsensical thoughts images or urges that individual tries to eliminate or resist
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Compulsions
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Are the thoughts or actions used to suppress the obsessions and provide relief; usually “magical” they have nothing to do with the obsession. **BUT they are believed to reduce stress or prevent a dreaded event
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OCD ratios
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M/F 1:1, but with children slightly more males— ( males onsets between 13 & 15, and in females 20-24… once developed it becomes CHRONIC)
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How does OCD begin?
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Has to spring from the Anxiety of having these unwanted intrusive obsessive thoughts. *They’re afraid that if they think these things they might happen, and then it would be their fault if they did happen. Believing certain thoughts are unacceptable and must be suppressed put people at risk for OCD.
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Body Dysmorphic Disorder
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“imagined ugliness”; an imagined defect of someone who looks quite normal; literally believing that your social anxiety comes because everyone is looking at a specific awful part of you— your head is square for example. 24% suicide rate— after surgery the distress either did not change or increased.
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Hoarding
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It is twice as high as OCD— 2%-5% of the population; 1:1 ratio men to women. (20 year collection of napkins) Starts out in teen years or 20s as retail therapy— buying things and experiencing great pleasure from doing it. The average age of people who seek therapy Is age 50, after years of hoarding.
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Trichotillomania
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Hair pulling. They go to great extremes to conceal the behavior. (they do this for tension relief)
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Excoriation (skin picking)
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compulsive picking of the skin leading to tissue damage. They do this for tension relief **** FEMALE disorder
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Treatment for Hairpulling/skin picking
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***Habit Reversal Treatment Instead of pulling/picking they are carefully taught to substitute it for chewing gum, or applying lotion or another reasonably pleasurable but harmless behavior.
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What is the difference between anxiety and fear?
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Anxiety is mainly worry about the future, whereas fear is an immediate reaction to danger.
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Jose experiences excessive worry almost every day for 8 months now for no apparent reason. His friends tell him to “chill” and “forget about it,” but he struggles controlling his thoughts to the point that he loses sleep, is irritable, and has difficulty concentrating on anything anymore.
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Generalized Anxiety Disorder
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According to your book, Agoraphobia refers to
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Fear and avoidance of situations which people might have a panic attack.
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After her fifth lyposuction, Mary decides that the doctor still hasn’t properly fixed the proportions of her nose just right. She insists that it is still too bulbous. You visually inspect Mary’s nose, and it looks perfectly normal to you. At this point, you are considering the possibility that Mary is experiencing _________.
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Body Dysmorphic Disorder
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SSRI is short for ________.
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Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor Serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitor
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Jerome Kagan pinpointed shyness as observable very early in life. In fact, he said it is discoverable as early as
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Nervous breakdown
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Jason, as in Jason and the Argonauts, leads his men with furious bravery and stoic discipline. He displays very rigid thinking which requires everything on his ship to be organized by symmetry. He further insists his men stand in line while hopping on one foot and singing “Jesus wants me for a Sunbeam” each time before they eat… he likely has….
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OCD
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The lifetime prevalence of OCD is approximately ________, or even lower.
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1.6%
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Somatic Symptom Disorder
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Body and the problems preoccupying people causing worry, stress and anxiety **Convinced their problems are medical, not psychological *More so women.
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Antisocial Personality Disorder
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Related to Somatic Symptom disorder— people can only find social connections with their caregivers/those that look after them/can only talk about their problems. In men it is aggressive, but in women it appears overly submissive.
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Conversion Disorder
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Actual physical malfunctioning (blindness, paralysis..etc) without any physical or organic evidence to support it. *neurological disease is somehow affecting the sensory-motor systems *Mostly Women Usually starts from an actual physical injury, that stays injured from anxiety etc. *Most of these people consult neurologists instead of psychologists, making the estimate of these about 30% of them actually are psycho induced. -Malingering (faking)….
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Factitious Disorder
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Puzzling disorder; somewhere between malingering (faking) and actual conversion disorders. There’ s no obvious reason why they voluntarily produce the symptoms except for attention. *Factitious disorder imposed on another: Sometimes extends to an adult doing this to a child etc. (MUNCHAUSEN BY PROXY for example)
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Disassociation
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Perceptions alter, and you temporarily lose the sense of your own reality (like you’re in a dream and you’re watching yourself) *Lose a sense of who you are and what is real
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Disassociation
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Perceptions alter, and you temporarily lose the sense of your own reality (like you’re in a dream and you’re watching yourself) *Lose a sense of who you are and what is real
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Depersonalization-derealization Disorder
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(.8%-2.8% of population) MW 1:1 Mean age onset: 16 (Among 117 patients, 73% suffered mood disorders as well, and 64% had anxiety disorder some point in their life) *Symptoms: surrounds are unreal, world looks foggy, find familiar places strange
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Dissociative Amnesia
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People who forget things: very common in war; or amnesia of the emotional reaction of events Generalized amnesia: People who forget who they are Localized/selective amnesia: failure to recall traumatic/specific events *In non western cultures can be “trance-induced” and “frenzy witchcrafts” More common than general amnesia (inability to recall important personal information, that’s too excessive to just be forgetfulness) *Dissociative Fugue: literally means flight; they try everything and travel to find who they are
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Dissociative identity Disorder
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May adopt as many as 100 different identities (but the average is about 15) *MEMORY GAPS “alters” = abbrev. Of the different personalities/identities in this disorder “host” = the person who asks for treatment (rarely the original person); usually develops later =certain aspects of this person’s personality are disassociated: they are split up into different parts or personalities of them. Females to Males 9:1 Onset: almost always childhood as young as 4, but usually7 *Caused by child trauma usually/non-supportive family environment
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Depersonalization Disorder
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Temporarily lose the sense of your own reality; Out of body experiences/detached -in a fog -in a dreamlike state -feeling really numb -body doesn’t seem to belong to self -Can’t remember if just did something or thought it -talk out loud to oneself -sometimes have a sense of invincibility because of the belief that it’s a dream *Tunnel vision *Kids that are fighting and out of control and feel really surprised about what happened (a mild form)
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Illness Anxiety Disorder (Hypochondriac)
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Fear of having it already and trying to get rid of it *They really don’t want it! *People who google your symptoms
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Somatic Symptom Disorder
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*There’s two types: 1. I don’t want to know if I am Tell me tell me tell me!!!
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Conversion Disorder
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Converting an unconscious stressor manifesting physically
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Bipolar Disorder
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Those who frequent going back and forth between Depressive and Mania “poles” Men Women: 1:1 Women: more tendency to rapidly cycle and stay in the depressive cycle more often *It is its own category.
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Major Depressive Episode
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Loss of interest, worthlessness, indecisiveness, altered sleep patterns, severe depression and vegetable symptoms (somatic symptoms- don’t do anything). (at least 2 weeks. Can last 4-9 months)
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Mania
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Hyperactive, require little sleep, grandiose plans, believe they can do whatever they desire. Flight of ideas. Duration: at least 1 week. YOU CAN HAVE JUST MANIC EPISODES!!! (without depressed episodes though) *gets mixed up with ADHD
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Hypomania Effect
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Less severe version of mania, at least 3-4 days. Adds to other emotional disorders.
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Mixed Features
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When a person experiences feelings of both mania and depression *Worst ever.
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Bipolar II Disorder
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Major depressive disorders episodes with hypomanic episodes rather than full blown manic episodes MDD + Hypomania
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Bipolar I Disorder
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Individual experiences a full manic episode MDD + Full Manic episodes MEDS: Lithium (salt the body produces), mood stabilizer; next option: anti-seizure meds; and finally ECT (Electroconvulsive Therapy)
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Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder
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Included to avoid over-diagnosing bipolar in children. (Children up to age 18, who have very intense irritated emotion) Children who have extremely negative mood regulation often being treated for Bipolar with drugs that have bad side effects, or are being treated for ADHD because DMDD doesn’t fit quite either
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Persistent Depressive Disorder (dysthymia)
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May be fewer symptoms ( like as few as two) but Depression stays consistently for long periods of time, sometimes up to 20-30 years or more. *depressed mood that lasts at least 2 years *Most severe because of a higher rate of comorbidity in other mental illnesses on top of it (most of these patients will end up having a MD episode too)
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Double Depressive Disorder
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Just the combining of both the MDD and the PDD Persistent symptoms; they have an MDD episode but then only come back up to a persistent depressive level
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SAD (Season Affective Disorder)
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Thought to be with the production of melatonin? In the winter months? 25% had already had MDD/Depressive episodes etc.
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Differential Diagnosis
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Switching of ‘moods’; not as long of switching history and as long of periods as Bipolar.
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SUICIDE stats
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-Males are 4x more likely to commit suicide than females (why? Because males have much more violent methods than females and females often don’t succeed) -Females attempt suicide 3x more than men
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Suicidal ideation
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Thinking seriously about suicide
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Suicidal plans
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The formulation of a specific method for killing oneself
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Suicidal attempts
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When the person ATTEMPTS but accidentally survives (Different from a “gesturer” those who don’t actually mean to do it, but as a plea for help)
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Jason Bourne, an international agent, was shot in the back and left for dead in the ocean. When he awoke, he couldn’t remember who he was or any details about his life, except he retained his secret agent skills (stunt driving, military combat, self-defense, foreign languages, etc…) Jason is likely experiencing symptoms best explained by which disorder?
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Dissociative Amnesia
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Your book gives the example of Gail: Invisibly III to describe Illness Anxiety Disorder (Hypochondriasis). Other than time and financial reasons, why did Gail stop seeing the doctor?
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She was convinced that her concerns were excessive, although she wasn’t happy about it.
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What is the term used to mean “faking” a disorder or disease?
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Malingering
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What is a key difference between Malingering and Factitious Disorder?
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Factitious Disorder includes no specific primary gain (e.g., money, benefits), while Malingering does
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Jeffrey Alan Ingram found himself in Denver not knowing who he was or why he was there after having gone missing a month earlier from Washington state. His symptoms most closely relate to which disorder discussed in this chapter?
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Dissociative Fugue
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All dissociative disorders, but particularly dissociative trance disorder are strongly influenced by _______ factors.
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Social
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In many diagnostic criteria for DSM-5 disorders, a stipulation of “causes clinically significant _______ or ________ in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning” is given as a qualifier of abnormal behavior.
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Distress and Impairment
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There is one critical criterion required for a diagnosis of Major Depressive Disorder. What is it?
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Major Depressive Episode
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Tom Hanks is stranded on an island and slowly begins to “go crazy.” Things get so bad that he believes his pet volleyball begins talking back to him. This, combined with his already severe depression qualifies him for a major depressive disorder, single episode with which specifier?
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Psychotic
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Children, Adolescents, and Adults vary widely on the way they experience and show signs of mood disorders. Instead of expressing their feelings verbally, children are more likely to ________ when they are depressed.
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Throw temper tantrums Have sleep problems Withdraw from socialization
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Aaron Beck suggested a cognitive triad for depression. Which 3 factors make up this triad?
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Self, World, Future
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Which is not used as a treatment for mood disorders?
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ITT
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Your book posits that aims toward reducing __________ would likely decrease the “contagiousness” of suicide.
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Media Involvement
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Illness Anxiety Disorder
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Fearing The possibility or IDEA of having illness
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Somatic Symptom Disorder
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Somatic claims with no physical basis (lots of things are painful)
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Factitious
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no reason (except attention) for producing the symptoms (may make another person ill)
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Milingering
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Trying to get out of something; work etc. their motives are clear
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What three components make up how we view emotions?
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Behavior, Physiology, Cognition
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Humanistic Model:
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guidance towards self-actualization
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Behavioral Model:
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Classical Conditioning/Operant Conditioning WATSON/JONES/SKINNER/BANDURA
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CBT:
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relieve symptoms/solve problems; think more ratinoally/logically
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Psychodynamic Approach:
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reveal unconscious things (FREUD)