Please enter something

Abnormal Psychology ch 5 & 7

question

Which of the following characterizes the mood-state known as anxiety?
answer

Apprehension about the future
question

Anxiety is closely related to which of the following psychological disorders?
answer

Depression
question

People tend to have their best performance on tasks when they are
answer

a little anxious
question

When people experience severe anxiety, they
answer

often know it is irrational, but can’t help it.
question

Anxiety is thought to be a____________ state, while fear is more_______.
answer

future-oriented; immediate
question

Fear activates a
answer

surge of energy in the autonomic nervous system so we can flee.
question

Which of the following is an accurate statement about anxiety?
answer

An inherited tendency can make us tense or uptight.
question

Members of the Falcons High School senior class will have an increased risk of developing anxiety disorders if they
answer

smoke 20 or more cigarettes daily.
question

According to Gray and McNaughton (1996), the fight-or-flight system is partially activated by deficiencies in the neurotransmitter _______ in the brain.
answer

serotonin
question

Research suggests that we inherit a tendency to be tense, which is ____
answer

caused by multiple genes
question

The area of the brain most often associated with anxiety is the
answer

limbic system
question

I’ve got to get out of here right now, or I may not make it!” This statement is most likely to be said by someone experiencing a(n)
answer

fear reaction.
question

is characterized by apprehension because of future unpredictability, whereas __
answer

Anxiety; fear
question

Which of the following is NOT a basic type of panic attack?
answer

Unexpected
question

. Mrs. Pan has an anxiety disorder in which she has occasional panic attacks when shopping at the mall. This type of panic attack is referred to as _______________.
answer

cued
question

Which type of panic attack is most closely related to phobias?
answer

Expected
question

Lawanda was walking down the street on a bright sunny day when, all of a sudden, she had an abrupt attack of intense fear that totally surprised her. This is what type of panic attack?
answer

Situationally bound
question

Hideki was attending his fifth baseball game at Condor Stadium, where he had previously had a panic attack. He did not know if he would have a panic attack today, but shortly after entering the stadium, he did. This type of panic attack is ____________.
answer

cued
question

According to the DSM-IV-TR criteria, the symptoms of a panic attack develop abruptly and reach a peak within _____ minute(s).
answer

10
question

Physiological assessments of panic attacks recorded in the laboratory indicate an increase in all of the following EXCEPT ______________.
answer

stomach contractions
question

Which of the following brain areas is NOT closely associated with anxiety?
answer

Amygdala
question

The behavioral inhibition system is activated by signals from the
answer

brain stem
question

Research suggests that generalized anxiety disorder is five-times more likely to develop in adults if they
answer

chewed tobacco as a teen.
question

Studies suggest that parents can protect their child from anxiety if they
answer

let children explore the world and deal with the unexpected.
question

Stressful life events – such as marriage, divorce, familial death, or academic pressures – trigger our vulnerabilities to anxiety. These are examples of a ______________ contribution.
answer

social
question

A child who is afraid of dogs because her father was afraid of dogs is said to have a ________ vulnerability.
answer

specific psychological
question

Research suggests that anxiety and depression frequently
answer

co-occur.
question

At the time of assessment of an anxiety disorder, _________ of patients should have at least one other anxiety or depressive disorder.
answer

55%
question

Having an anxiety disorder increases the risk of ______________.
answer

depression migraines suicidal ideation
question

Which of the following statements is TRUE about anxiety disorders?
answer

Having an anxiety disorder might contribute to a physical disorder such as arthritis.
question

In what way is worry not useful?
answer

It ensures that we respond appropriately to fear-inducing events.
question

Which of the following terms is most associated with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)?
answer

Worry
question

all of the following are symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) EXCEPT
answer

hypersomnia.
question

Research studies have found that generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is most common among
answer

adults over 45 years of age
question

People with GAD
answer

have a 58% chance of recovery after having the disorder for 12 years .
question

People with GAD tend to worry about
answer

mostly minor things.
question

Which of the following people living in the United States is most likely to develop GAD?
answer

Monica, a 50-year-old woman
question

Which physiological measure consistently distinguishes individuals with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) from non-anxious normal subjects?
answer

Increased muscle tension
question

For generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), the pharmacological treatment of choice has been the category of drugs known as ___________.
answer

benzodiazepines
question

Research suggests that people with GAD worry
answer

without images but try to avoid the associated negative affect.
question

Evidence now suggests that agoraphobic avoidance behavior is one component of
answer

severe, unexpected panic attacks.
question

Agoraphobic avoidance behavior appears to be determined by
answer

the extent to which the person expects another panic attack to occur.
question

Which of the following is an accurate statement about panic disorder?
answer

Most individuals with panic disorder will also avoid internal sensations that produce physiological arousal
question

. Agoraphobia, which has come to mean “fear of going out,” derives from the Greek word agora, meaning
answer

marketplace
question

A teenage girl had recently been having panic attacks while shopping at the mall. She was sitting in her room feeling very depressed. To cheer her up, a friend suggested that they both go to an exercise class. Shortly after the warm-up started, however, she had another panic attack. What is the best explanation for this occurrence?
answer

The physical sensations experienced during exercise had become an internal cue for panic to occur.
question

An individual who suffers from panic disorder might become anxious about climbing stairs, exercising, or being in hot rooms because these activities produce sensations similar to those accompanying a panic attack. In psychological terms, the exercise and hot rooms have become __________.
answer

conditioned stimuli
question

Panic attack studies suggest that men
answer

consume alcohol to deal with panic attacks.
question

Panic attacks tend to occur most often
answer

during deep sleep between 1:30 and 3:30 a.m.
question

People with a psychological vulnerability to panic attacks tend to ________ normal physical sensations.
answer

catastrophize
question

Nocturnal panic attacks generally occur when an individual is
answer

deeply asleep
question

. In treating panic disorder, all of the following types of medications are used EXCEPT
answer

opiates
question

the purpose of creating mini panic attacks in panic control treatment therapy is to
answer

allow the patient to develop alternative attitudes about the feared situation.
question

A friend stated that when she went to a clinic, she had to spend several 30- to 60-second sessions shaking her head from side to side, spinning in a chair, tensing all her muscles, hyperventilating, or breathing through a narrow straw. She is surprised that you correctly guessed that she is receiving treatment for
answer

panic disorder
question

Manuel had a fear of riding on buses, so his mother had to drive him to school every day. Manuel’s phobia is a(n) _________ phobia.
answer

situational
question

The main difference between situational phobia and panic disorder with agoraphobia (PDA) is
answer

people with situational phobia never experience panic attacks outside the context of the phobic situation.
question

You are told about a child who has shown behavior consistent with “separation anxiety.” In order to determine if the child actually has a disorder or whether the behavior is normal, you would first need to know
answer

the child’s age.
question

The median age of onset for a specific phobia is
answer

7
question

A psychological disorder in children characterized by unrealistic and persistent worry that something will happen to their parents, which may result in refusal to leave home is called
answer

separation anxiety disorder.
question

When diagnosing separation anxiety disorder in children, clinicians must
answer

be wary for the psychotic episodes that often precipitate this condition.
question

In the general population, as many as ____ of people suffer from social anxiety disorder at some point in their lives.
answer

12.1%
question

According to your textbook, there are at least three ways of developing a phobia. Which is NOT one of these ways?
answer

Having a nightmare about a feared situation
question

According to your textbook, new techniques have made it possible to treat some phobias effectively in one
answer

day
question

Which of the following is the most prevalent psychological disorder in the general population?
answer

Specific phobia
question

Unlike most of the anxiety disorders in which female sufferers predominate, the sex ratio is almost equal in __________.
answer

social phobia
question

The anxiety disorder called social phobia, involving anxiety about being evaluated or criticized, usually begins during ________.
answer

adolescence
question

Which of the following drugs received FDA approval in 1999 as a treatment for social phobia?
answer

Paxil
question

The setting for posttraumatic stress disorder to occur follows an experience accompanied by a triad of feelings, including all of the following EXCEPT _______.
answer

paranoia
question

Individuals suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) display a characteristic set of symptoms including all of the following EXCEPT
answer

decreased startle response and chronic under-arousal.
question

Which of the following is an accurate statement about posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)?
answer

Acute stress disorder was included as a DSM-IV diagnosis so early severe reactions to trauma could receive health insurance coverage for immediate treatment.
question

Which of the following people is most likely to develop PTSD?
answer

A man who is very angry and blaming about a traumatic experience
question

Veterans returning home to the United States after the end of the war in Vietnam experienced a high rate of posttraumatic stress disorder due in part to
answer

absence of social support.
question

Although the “alarm reactions” experienced in both PTSD and panic disorder are very similar and result in conditioned responses, in panic disorder the alarm is _______.
answer

false
question

Physiologically, PTSD appears to be related to damage to
answer

the hippocampus, which disrupts learning and memory.
question

one difference between panic disorders and PTSD is
answer

in a panic attack, the alarm is false, while in PTSD, the initial alarm is true.
question

Obsessive-compulsive disorder is often accompanied by all of the following EXCEPT
answer

visual hallucinations
question

Which type of compulsion has the highest prevalence rate?
answer

Symmetry
question

. In regard to OCD, when the term “magical” is used to refer to compulsive acts, it means
answer

the compulsions have no logical relation to the obsessions.
question

An observation has been made between children presenting with OCD and tics after a bout of strep throat. The resulting syndrome was called
answer

Pediatric Autoimmune Disorder associated with Streptococcal Infection (PANDAS).
question

In regard to a type of thinking pattern found in some patients with OCD, which of the following would be an example of thought-action fusion?
answer

Believing that thinking about an abortion is the moral equivalent of having an abortion
question

according to several cross-cultural research studies reported in the textbook, the prevalence of OCD is
answer

very similar across cultures.
question

The model of the etiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder suggests that in order for an individual to develop OCD, __________ must be present.
answer

both biological and psychological vulnerabilities
question

The overall prevalence for body dysmorphic disorder in the general population is about
answer

2.2%
question

A person with which of the following conditions might regularly wear hats, even in situations where it is not appropriate to do so, in order to hide unusual bald spots on their head.
answer

Trichotillomania
question

Marika regularly shows up at school with bandages on her arm. When her friends ask her why she has a new one, she dodges the question and just says, “oh I got a small cut.” She is regularly seen playing with the bandages, and on day one of her friends was sure she saw Marika actually picking at her own skin in te same area of her arm. Which problem may Marika be challenged by?
answer

Excoriation
question

Because people with body dysmorphic disorder often complain of persistent, intrusive, and horrible thoughts about their appearance, this condition is believed to be closely related to ________ disorder.
answer

obsessive-compulsive
question

A rather unusual affliction that is marked by an unwarranted preoccupation with some imagined defect in one’s physical appearance is called ________ disorder.
answer

body dysmorphic
question

Prior to the DSM-III, conditions that are currently characterized as mood disorders were referred to by several different names, including all of the following EXCEPT
answer

psychotic episodes
question

The physical symptoms of a major depressive disorder include
answer

changes in appetite or weight.
question

One of the symptoms of a mood disorder is called anhedonia, which means
answer

an inability to engage in pleasurable activities.
question

Mood disorders can range from mild to severe; the most severe type of depression is called
answer

major depressive disorder
question

The first episode of major depression is usually time-limited – often lasting up to ________ – if left untreated.
answer

9 months
question

Which of the following is a symptom of a manic mood state?
answer

Grandiose planning
question

When used in connection with mood disorders, “flight of ideas” means
answer

rapid speech expressing many exciting ideas at once.
question

In comparing the length of untreated depressive episodes to untreated manic episodes, which of the following is an accurate statement?
answer

Depressive episodes generally last longer.
question

Which of the following is NOT TRUE about a hypomanic manic episode?
answer

It causes marked impairment in social or occupational functioning.
question

A 35-year-old individual named Manny has recently formulated an elaborate plan to cure AIDS with vitamin therapy. To provide funding for this cause, he has withdrawn all the money from his bank account and purchased thousands of jars of vitamins and small boxes in which to put them. When he appeared at a hospital emergency room loudly demanding names of patients with AIDS, he himself was hospitalized for psychiatric observation. What is your diagnosis of Manny?
answer

Manic episode
question

Unipolar mania
answer

is rare.
question

During a dysphoric manic episode, the patient experiences mania and ___________.
answer

anxiety and depression
question

Most individuals who experience a single episode of major depressive disorder will
answer

probably have several episodes throughout their lives.
question

Debbie has been diagnosed with major depressive disorder, recurrent. She wants to know what to expect in the future regarding her condition. You tell her that according to recent research the median lifetime number of major depressive episodes is _____
answer

2-3
question

Persistent depressive disorder (formerly called dysthymia) differs from major depressive disorder because people diagnosed with dysthymia have symptoms of depression that are ________.
answer

longer-lasting
question

Jack has experienced recurrent episodes of major depressive episodes. In the intervals between the episodes, he does not seem to return to “normal.” In fact, during those periods, he has been diagnosed as suffering from persistent depressive disorder. Jack’s condition is referred to as _______________.
answer

double depression
question

A person who experiences a persistent depressed mood for at least 2 years but is not experiencing major depression may have
answer

persistent depressive disorder.
question

Milton has been mildly depressed for many years. Just recently, however, his depression deepened, and he was severely depressed for about three months. His deep depression then lifted and he was once again mildly depressed. Milton
answer

will require a longer and more intense course of treatment to maintain a normal mood state.
question

Katie has been diagnosed with major depressive disorder. Most recently, she has been lying immobile for long periods. If someone moves one of her arms to a different position, it just stays there. Katie has stopped speaking and does not appear to hear what is being said to her. What specifier would you apply to her diagnosis of major depressive disorder?
answer

With catatonic features
question

amara gave birth to a healthy child four days ago. Now she is tearful and having mood swings. Fortunately, these symptoms disappeared relatively quickly. Tamara was probably suffering from _______________.
answer

baby blues
question

A person who eats and sleeps too much is experiencing a depressive episode with __________ features.
answer

atypical
question

The melancholic specifiers for depressive disorders include all of the following EXCEPT
answer

sleeping late and hypersomnia.
question

Although catatonic symptoms occur in major depressive disorders, they are more frequently associated with ______________.
answer

schizophrenia
question

The peripartum onset specifier is used to characterize a severe manic or depressive episode with psychotic features that occurs in a woman immediately before or after ____________.
answer

childbirth
question

In rare tragic cases, a mother suffering from major depression with peripartum onset sometimes
answer

kills her child.
question

The most usual pattern of a temporal specifier in major depressive disorder occurs in the late fall and ends with the beginning of spring. This type of depression is known as __________.
answer

recurrent
question

An effective treatment for SAD is
answer

exposure to bright light shortly after awakening.
question

According to recent research (Kessler et al., 2003), the percentage of people aged 18 to 29 that have already experienced major depression is _______
answer

25%
question

How many patients with severe cases of depression where the episode lasts 5 years or longer can be expected to recover?
answer

38%
question

The probability that a person will recover from a major depressive episode within 1 year approaches 90% in _________________.
answer

almost all cases
question

Symptoms of severe depression are generally NOT considered a psychological disorder when they are associated with ________________.
answer

a grief reaction
question

A woman who is extremely depressed a year or so after the loss of her spouse might be diagnosed with ___________.
answer

complicated grief
question

Although grieving is considered a normal process, it does sometimes become a psychological disorder. Which of the following cases would NOT be diagnosed as a pathological grief reaction?
answer

Mrs. C’s dog recently died. Three weeks later, her friends suggest that she get another dog “to help her get over the loss.” Mrs. C. refuses and says she just isn’t ready to get another dog and besides, it would be impossible to replace her beloved “Toto.”
question

Bipolar II disorder consists of
answer

depression with hypomanic episodes.
question

Jane is diagnosed with bipolar II disorder. You can expect that she will experience
answer

hypomanic episodes.
question

when manic episodes alternate with depressive episodes, the disorder most correctly diagnosed would be
answer

bipolar disorder.
question

Suicide associated with bipolar disorder almost always occurs during
answer

depressive episode.
question

The rapid-cycling specifier refers to an individual with bipolar disorder who experiences at least ___ manic or depressive episodes in a year.
answer

4
question

In studies of bipolar patients who experience rapid cycling, it has been found that from 60% to 90% are _________.
answer

female
question

At various times, Cynthia, a 20-year-old college student, has been considered by her family and/or friends to be moody, high-strung, explosive, or hyperactive. She never fails to take care of her responsibilities, but the fact that she seems to experience mood swings that are outside the norm has been noticed by those around her. Knowing the criteria for mood disorders, you would diagnose Cynthia with ___________.
answer

cyclothymic disorder
question

When referring to the mood disorders called cyclothymia and persistent depressive disorder, it would be accurate to say that an individual with cyclothymia probably
answer

would be considered “moody.”
question

he less severe but more chronic version of bipolar disorder is called __________ disorder.
answer

seasonal affective
question

In about _____________patients, cyclothymic mood swings develop into full-blown bipolar disorder.
answer

33% to 50%
question

Approximately ______ experience major depressive disorder over a lifetime and approximately _____ in the last year
answer

16%; 6%
question

Depression rates in adolescents appear to be
answer

about the same as adults.
question

A child raised by depressed parents is likely to
answer

struggle with depression as well.
question

A common characteristic of depression in boys is
answer

aggression
question

Being depressed __________ the risk of death in elderly patients who have had a stroke or heart attack.
answer

doubles
question

Cross-cultural research indicates that, due at least in part to appalling social and economic conditions, the prevalence of major depression is extremely high among ________.
answer

Native Americans
question

According to your textbook, researchers have been studying the life histories of American poets to determine if there is a relationship between creativity and _______.
answer

bipolar disorder
question

In regard to most disorders, serotonin is thought to
answer

regulate other neurotransmitters, such as norepinephrine and dopamine.
question

Depressive individuals tend to exhibit
answer

greater right anterior brain activity
question

In regard to the relationship between stress and depression, all of the following statements are true EXCEPT
answer

recurrent episodes of depression, but not initial episodes, are strongly predicted by major life stress.
question

When individuals who are biologically vulnerable to depression place themselves in high-risk stressful environments, it is called
answer

the gene-environment correlation model.
question

Stressful events are strongly related to the onset of
answer

both depression and bipolar disorder
question

Martin Seligman’s theory that people become anxious and depressed because they believe that they have no control over the stress in their lives is called
answer

the learned helplessness theory.
question

n 1989, Abramson and his colleagues revised Seligman’s theory of learned helplessness, changing the focus from specific attributions to _________ as the crucial factor in depression.
answer

a sense of hopelessness
question

A student who has been doing very well in her psychology class receives a minor critical comment on an essay that she wrote as part of an exam. The student thinks, “This is terrible. I’m probably going to fail the course.” This type of cognitive error in thinking is called _________.
answer

overgeneralization
question

In Aaron Beck’s depressive cognitive triad, individuals think negatively about all of the following EXCEPT ________.
answer

their past
question

. For individuals who had not been previously depressed, research studies indicate that a marital separation or divorce resulted in
answer

a higher rate of depression in men.
question

. Possible reasons for the higher rates of depression found in women include all of the following EXCEPT
answer

low value placed on intimate relationships.
question

Possible reasons for the higher rates of depression found in women relate to the disadvantages experienced by women in the United States such as
answer

discrimination and poverty. abuse and sexual harassment. both of these
question

With regard to social support,
answer

having social support helped speed recovery from depressive episodes.
question

The following types of medications are all used to treat depression EXCEPT
answer

SSRIs.
question

The class of drugs that blocks the enzyme that breaks down norepehinephrine and serotonin is
answer

MAO inhibitors.
question

Which of the following statements is TRUE about tricyclics?
answer

They can be accompanied by very unpleasant side effects.
question

Side effects of the tricyclic antidepressants include
answer

sexual dysfunction
question

Clinical studies have shown that the response rate for patients receiving at least some relief from depressive symptoms is approximately
answer

50%
question

A goal of treatment for patients who have experienced major depressive disorders is delaying or preventing the next episode. In which of the following situations would this goal be LEAST important?
answer

patients who have had a single, brief episode of major depressive disorder and recovered without treatment
question

All of the following are side effects of lithium therapy EXCEPT
answer

the side effects of lithium are less serious than those of other antidepressants.
question

A relative of yours has been diagnosed with bipolar disorder. Your family is impressed when you mention that the preferred drug for this condition is ________.
answer

lithium
question

All of the following statements about lithium therapy are true EXCEPT
answer

once a person is symptom-free for 6 months, he/she may stop taking lithium.