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Abnormal Psychology, Butcher 16 ed. Chapter 3

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adoption method
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comparison of biological and adoptive relatives with and without a given disorder to assess genetic versus environmental influences
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association studies
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genetic research strategy comparing frequency of certain genetic markers known to be located on particular chromosomes in people with and without a particular disorder
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attachment theory
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contemporary developmental and psychodynamic theory emphasizing the importance of early experience with attachment relationships in laying the foundation for later functioning throughout life
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attribution
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process of assigning causes to things that happen
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behavior genetics
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field that studies the heritability of mental disorders and other aspects of psychological functioning such as personality and intelligence
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biopsychosocial viewpoint
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a viewpoint that acknowledges the interacting roles of biological, psychosocial, sociocultural factors in the origins of psychopathology
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castration anxiety
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as postulated by Freud, the anxiety a young boy experiences when he desires his mother while at the same time fearing that this father may harm him by cutting off his penis; this anxiety forces the boy to repress his sexual desire for his mother and his hostility toward his father
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chromosomes
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chain-like structures within cell nucleus that contain genes
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classical conditioning
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a basic form of learning in which a neutral stimulus is paired repeatedly with an US that naturally elicits an UR. After repeated pairings, the neutral stimulus becomes a CS that elicits a CR
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cognitive-behavioral perspective
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a theory of abnormal behavior that focuses on how thoughts and information processing can become distorted and lead to maladaptive emotions and behavior
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concordance rate
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the percentage of twins sharing a disorder or trait
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contributory cause
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a condition that increases the probability of developing a disorder but that is neither necessary nor sufficient for it to occur
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cortisol
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human stress hormone released by the cortex of the adrenal glands
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developmental psychopathology
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field of psychology that focuses on determining what is abnormal at any point in the developmental process by comparing and contrasting it with normal and expected changes that occur
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developmental systems approach
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acknowledgment that genetic activity influences neural activity, which in turn influences behavior, which in turn influences the environment, and that these influences are bidirectional
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diathesis
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predisposition or vulnerability to developing a given disorder
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diathesis-stress model
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view of abnormal behavior as the result of stress operating on an individual who has a biological, psychosocial or sociocultural predisposition to developing a specific disorder
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discrimination
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ability to interpret and respond differently to two or more similar stimuli
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ego
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in psychoanalytic theory, the rational part of the personality that mediates between the demands of the id, the constraints of the superego, and the realities of the external world
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ego psychology
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psychodynamic theory emphasizing the importance of the ego–the “executive branch of the personality”–in organizing normal personality development
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ego-defense mechanisms
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psychic mechanisms that discharge or soothe anxiety rather than coping directly with an anxiety-provoking situation; usually unconscious and reality distorting (also called defense mechanisms)
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electra complex
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excessive emotional attachment (love) of a daughter for her father; the female counterpart of the Oedipus complex
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etiology
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factors that are related to the development (or cause) of a particular disorder
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extinction
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gradual disappearance of a conditioned response when it is no longer reinforced
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family history method
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behavior genetic research strategy that examines the incidence of disorder in relatives of an index case to determine whether incidence increases in proportion to the degree of the hereditary relationship
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generalization
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tendency of a response that has been conditioned to one stimulus to be elicited by other, similar stimuli
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genes
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long molecules of DNA that are present at various locations on chromosomes and that are responsible for the transmission of hereditary traits
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genotype
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a person’s total genetic endowment
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genotype-environment correlation
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genotypic vulnerability that can shape a child’s environmental experiences
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genotype-environment interaction
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differential sensitivity or susceptibility to their environments by people who have different genotypes
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Hikikomori
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disorder in Japan, acute social withdrawal in which young people just remain in their room in their parent’s house for at least 6 months
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Zar
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north africa and middle east; disorder where person believes they are possessed by a spirit and may experience a dissociative episode during which laughing or weeping may occur; may also experience apathy or withdrawal
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hormones
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chemical messengers secreted by endocrine glands that regulate development of and activity in various parts of the body
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hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis)
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brain endocrine system involved in responding to stress in which the hypothalamus and pituitary send messages to the adrenal glands which releases a stress hormone that feeds back on the hypothalamus
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id
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in psychoanalytic theory, the reservoir of instinctual drives and the first structure to appear in infancy
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instrumental (operant) conditioning
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reinforcement of a subject for making a correct response that leads either to receipt of something rewarding or to escape from something unpleasant
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interpersonal perspective
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approach to understanding abnormal behavior that views much of psychopathology as rooted in the unfortunate tendencies we develop while dealing with our interpersonal environments; it this focuses on our relationships, past and present, with other people
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intrapsychic conflict
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inner mental struggles resulting from the interplay of the id, ego and superego when the three subsystems are striving for different goals
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learning
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modification of behavior as a consequence of experience
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libido
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in psychoanalytic theory, a term used to describe the instinctual drive of the id; the basic constructive energy of life, primarily sexual in nature
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linkage analysis
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genetic research strategy in which occurrence of a disorder in an extended family is compared with that of a genetic marker for a physical characteristic or biological process that is known to be located on a particular chromosome
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necessary cause
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a condition that must exist for a disorder to occur
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neurotransmitter
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chemical substance released into a synapse by a presynaptic neuron and that transmits nerve impulses from one neuron to another
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object-relations theory
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in psychoanalytic theory, this viewpoint focuses on an infant or young kid’s interactions with “objects” (real/imaginary people) as well as how they make symbolic representations of important people in their lives
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observational learning
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learning through observation alone without directly experiencing an unconditioned stimulus (for CC) or a reinforcement (for IC/OC)
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Oedipus Complex
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desire for sexual relations with a parent of the opposite sex; the desire of a boy for his mother, with his father a hated rival
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phenotype
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the observed structural and functional characteristics of a person that result from interaction between the genotype and the environment
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pituitary gland
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endocrine gland associated with many regulatory functions
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pleasure principle
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demand that an instinctual need be immediately gratified regardless of reality or moral considerations
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polygenic
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caused by the action of many genes together in an additive or interactive fashion
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primary process thinking
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gratification of id demands by means of imagery or fantasy without the ability to undertake the realistic actions needed to meet those instinctual demands
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protective factors
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influences that modify a person’s response to an environmental stressor, making it less likely that the person will experience the adverse effects of the stressor
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psychosexual stages of development
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according to Freudian theory, there are 5 stages each characterized by a dominant mode of achieving sexual pleasure: oral stage, anal stage, phallic stage, latency stage and genital stage
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reality principle
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awareness of the demands of the environment and adjustment of behavior to meet these demands
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reinforcement
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the process of rewarding desired responses
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resilience
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the ability to adapt successfully to even very difficult circumstances
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schema
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an underlying representation of knowledge that guides current processing of information and often leads to distortions in attention, memory, and comprehension
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secondary process thinking
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reality-oriented rational processes of the ego for dealing with the external world and the exercise of control over id demands
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self-schema
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our view of what we are, what we might become, and what is important to us
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spontaneous recovery
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the return of a learned response at some time after extinction has occured
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stress
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effects created within an organism by the application of a stressor
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sufficient cause
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a condition that guarantees the occurrence of a disorder
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superego
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conscience; ethical or moral dimensions (attitudes) of personality
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synapse
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site of communication from the axon of one neuron to the dendrites or cell body of another neuron–a tiny filled space between neurons
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temperament
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pattern of emotional and arousal responses and characteristic ways of self regulation that are considered to be primarily hereditary or constitutional
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twin method
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the use of identical and nonidentical twins to study genetic influences on abnormal behavior