Abnormal Psych (Chapter 2)

challenges faced by many clinical researchers include all of the following except
-measuring abnormal concepts is difficult
-rights of participants is carefully guarded
-many variables such as race and gender
*THERE ARE VERY FEW GRADUATE STUDENTS TRAINED IN CLINICAL RESEARCH

General principles that explain the underlying nature, causes, and treatments of abnormal behavior are called:
nomothetic

a study of a single person that is used to explain the underlying causes of nature of abnormal behavior in that person is consistent with the ____ approach
idiographic

clinical researchers are usually concerned with a_____ understanding of abnormality, while practitioners focus on an____ understanding
nomothetic, idiographic

as opposed to clinical practitioners, who search for individualistic understanding of human behavior, clinical researchers search for general truths about abnormality. The approach of clinical researchers is:
nomothetic

the clinical practitioner would be MORE likely than the clinical researcher to rely on which method of investigation
a case study with a single participant

which of the following is the BEST example of the idiographic approach?
a detailed study of one case

a case study of a patient includes a history, tests, and interviews with associates. A clear picture is constructed of this individual so her behavior is understood. This approach is:
idiographic

if you were using the scientific method to conduct research in abnormal psychology, you would be seeking:
a nomothetic understanding

which of the following is NOT considered a research method?
a treatment plan for an individual

experiments are consistent with the ____approach
nomothetic

the idea that children from single-parent families do show more depression than those from two-parent families is a:
hypothesis

a friend says to you, “i think the Red Sox win more games on Tuesdays than on any other day,” Although your friend’s statement is not very scientific, it is a:
hypothesis

Freud’s study of Little Hans is an example of:
a case study

a psychologist does a study of an individual involving a history, tests, and interviews of associates. A clear picture is constructed of this individual so his behavior is better understood. This is a:
case study

Which of the following is an example of a case study?
a long-term study of a clinical client

The controversy regarding research with animals centers on:
the rights of animals versus their usefulness in understanding human problems

case studies are useful for:
studying unusual problems

of the following examples of case studies, the one MOST likely to be helpful in the study of abnormality would be a case study including a well-tested, research-supported form of therapy used to treat an:
-common disorder
-depression
-substance abuse
*UNCOMMON DISORDER

case studies are useful for all of the following except:
-studying unusual problems
-learning a great deal about a particular patient
-suggesting new areas of study
*DETERMINING GENERAL LAWS OF BEHAVIOR

which of the following is a limitation of the case study?
-it does not enable the therapist to understand the whole patient
-it does not lead to an individualized approach
-it doesn’t allow the therapist to propose a course of treatment
*IT DOES NOT RESULTS IN HIGH EXTERNAL VALIDITY

internal validity reflects how well a study:
rules out the effects of all variables except those being studied

if a particular study of alcoholism failed to control for cultural patterns in drinking among participants, the study would have low:
internal validity

the ability to generalize results from a study of certain individuals to other individuals not studied is called:
external validity

external validity refers to the extent to which the results of a study:
apple to subjects and situations other than the ones studied

a psychologist studies memory techniques in adult volunteers and learns how to facilitate memory, then applies the results to a new class of students in a psychology course. This demonstrates faith in:
the external validity of the study

one of the problems with animal research is the question of whether the results can apply to human beings. This is a question of:
external validity

if a study’s findings generalize beyond the immediate study to other persons and situations, then the study has:
external validity

correlational studies and experiments are preferred over case studies for all of the following reasons except:
-they typically observer many individuals
-they are more easily replicable
-they use statistical tests to analyze results
*THEY OFFER RICH DETAILS THAT MAKE THE RESULTS EXTREMELY INTERESTING

in correlational research, external validity is established when:
the sample is representative of the larger population

the major ethical concerns with research on Facebook users is:
Facebook users don’t always know when they are being studied

a researcher is considering whether to gather online data from Facebook users without informing the users that their data are being used. In terms of research ethics, which of the following is the most relevant question?
-are Facebook postings considered “public behavior”?
-are Facebook users a random sample of whatever population is being studied?
-will Facebook users be able to sue if they think their rights are being violated?
-will the potential benefits of the research outweigh the potential risks to Facebook users?
-are Facebook postings considered “public behavior”?

in a graph of a correlational study, the line of best fit:
is as close as possible to all points in the graph

a researcher finds individuals who report large numbers of “hassles” in their lives usually also report higher levels of stress. Those who report fewer “hassles” generally report lower levels of stress. The correlation between the number of “hassles” and stress level is:
positive

“the heavier you are, the more food you are likely to eat.” If it is true, this statement expresses
a positive correlation

if you were to graph the relationship between the numbers of negative life events experienced in the last month and people’s perceptions of stress, you would probably find an:
upward-sloping line to the right

correlation coefficients indicate:
the magnitude and direction of the relationship between variables

which of the following correlation coefficients is of the highest magnitude?
-0.81

which of the following correlation coefficients represents the weakest relationship?
-.06

if the correlation between severity of depression and age is -05, it means that:
there is no consistent relationship between age and severity of depression

which of the following is true of the correlation coefficient?
it ranges from -1.00 to +1.00 and indicates the strength and the direction of the relationship between two variables.

a friend says to you, “quick! i have to take a test in two minutes. what rule can you give me to help me remember what kind of correlation coefficient shows a weak relationship between two variables?” which of the following would you give to help your friend?
-a correlation coefficient that is statistically significant
-a correlation coefficient close to minus 1 (-1)
-a correlation coefficient that doesn’t prove a casual relationship between the variables
-a correlation coefficient close to zero
* A CORRELATION COEFFICIENT CLOSE TO ZERO

assume variables x and y are correlated. a researcher would be able to make the most accurate predictions of scores on variable y if the correlation between x and y is:
-close to zero
-+.45
–.53
–.88
-.88

which of the following correlations is most likely to be statistically significant?
+.85, based on a sample of 10 people
-.08, based on a sample of 100 people
+.35, based on a sample of 10 people
-.80, based on a sample of 100 people
-.80, based on a sample of 100 people

a correlational study of college employees shows a strong positive correlation between self-reported stress levels and days of work missed for illness. From this study, we know that:
we can make a fairly accurate prediction of days missed for illness if we know a person’s stress level

the major advantage of a correlational study over a case study is that it:
has better external validity

all of the following are merits of the correlational method except:
it can be replicated.
it can be analyzed statistically.
its results can be generalized.
it provides individual information.
it provides individual information

if stress levels and physical health are negatively correlated, we know that:
as stress increases, health decreases

a researcher finds a strong positive correlation between ratings of life stress and symptoms of depression. therefore, the researcher may be confident that:
life stress and depression are related

the correlational method and the experimental method are similar in that:
they both have external validity

unlike the correlational methods and the experimental method, the case study provides:;
individual information

which of the following results most likely are form an epidemiological study
-The rate of suicide is higher in Ireland than in the United States.
-Autism is caused by influenza vaccinations.
-Child abuse is often found in the backgrounds of those with multiple personalities.
-Alcoholism runs in families.
the rate of suicide is higher than ireland than in the USA

the form of a correlational research that seeks to find how many new cases of a disorder occur in a group in a given time period is termed:
epidemiological (incidence)

the incidence of HIV+ results on campus tells you:
the number of new HIV+cases measured in a time period

the prevalence of sexual dysfunction in older men seen at a clinic tells you:
total number of older men with sexual dysfunction at the clinic

studies that determine the incidence and prevalence of a disorder in a particular population are called:
epidemiological studies

the number of new cases of a disorder in a population that emerge in a particular time interval is called the:
incidence

there were 10 new cases of schizophrenia in a small town in the midwest this week. This observation refers to the ____ of schizophrenia in this small population:
incidence

the total number of cases of a disorder in the population is called the :
prevalence

the prevalence rate for a disorder will _____ the incidence rate>
always be the same of higher than

describing the number of cases of mental retardation in the children of older mothers in 2005 would be a legitimate goal for an ______ study
epidemiological

the finding that women have higher rates of anxiety and depression than men in the US is most likely due to ______ research.
-case study
-longitudinal
-analogue
-epidemiological
epidemiological

imagine that a longitudinal study found that children raised by people with schizophrenia are more likely to commit crimes later. This result tells us that:
children of people with schizophrenia are at a higher risk of criminal behavior

if researchers studied vietnam veterans for 30 years after the veterans’ return from ‘nam, the study would be:
longitudinal

if an epidemiological study showed that eating disorders are more common in western countries than in eastern ones, we can appropriately conclude:
nothing about the cause of suck finding

in a scientific experiment, the variable manipulated or controlled by the experimenter is called the:
independent variable

which of the following is an aspect of the experimental approach?
-the use of confounding variables
-observation of people over a period of time
-a detailed interpretive description of a subject
-the manipulation of a variable by the researcher
the manipulation of a variable by the researcher

the statement or prediction that we make about a potential causal relationship in a proposed study is called the:
hypothesis

the following experiment is conducted to study the causes of aggression in children. half the children eat a sugared cereal; the remaining half eat cornflakes. the number of aggressive acts displayed by the children in a one hour play time after breakfast is then recorded. in this experiment:
the type of cereal is the independent variable, and the number of aggressive responses is the dependent variable.

a psychologist was interested in the effect of hunger on psychological disturbances. the psychologist deprived had of a group of healthy volunteers of food for one day and fed the other half normally, then administered the MMPI-2 to all the participants. what was the independent variable?
the level of food deprivation

dr. tim required had of a group of healthy volunteers to study a reading passage for 1 hour. the other half of the participants studied for 15 mins. dr. tim then administered a test of their memory of details from the passage. what was the dependent variable
the results of the memory test

a study includes 60 people suffering from an ordinary headache. twenty get aspirin, 20 get a sugar pill, and 20 get nothing as all. in 65% of the aspirin group, the headache disappears. in the other two groups, the “cure” rates are 35% and 5%, respectively. other than the drug condition the participants are treated identically. this study:
is an experimental study

In a study designed to test a new antidepressant, a large group of outpatient psychiatric patients was randomly assigned to one of two groups. One of the groups was given the drug as a pill. The other group was given identical-looking inert pills. All participants were tested in the morning. The level of depression of each subject was measured by three psychologists independently, using the Beck Depression Inventory. Which of the following was the independent variable in this study?
the drug

students are given a sensation seeking test and then divided into two groups depending on their scores. a researcher observes how many time a student in each group get out of their seat in two hours. The dependent variable is:
number of times getting out of their seat

a research procedure in which a variable is manipulated and the manipulations effect on another variable is observed is called an:
experiment

factors other than the independent variable may also act on the dependent variable. if these factors vary systematically with the independent variable, they are called _____ variables.
confounding

if a research study on a group of children with autism comparing treatment delivered by parents at home to treatment delivered by teachers at school finds that the treatment delivered at school is more effective, which of the following is the best example of a confounding variable?
-the treatment
-the children
-the diagnosis
-differences between the parents and teachers
differences between the parents and teachers

one group of patients is treated with medication in a hospital. another group is treated with the same medication on an outpatient basis. the diagnoses of the two groups of patients are equally serious. the best example of a confound in this study is the:
-characteristics of the hospital.
-type of medication given.
-seriousness of the diagnoses.
-level of improvement.
characteristics of the hospital

One hundred psychiatric patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups. One group received a new drug in pill form. The other group was given identical-looking placebo pills. All participants were evaluated for level of agitation by a panel of psychiatrists who didn’t know which pill they received. What could be a potential confound in this study?
having the drug group be inpatients and the placebo group be the outpatients

the group of participants that is not exposed to the independent variable under investigation is the:
control group

A researcher wishes to study the effect of a new drug on symptoms of depression. Research participants are randomly assigned to two groups. Participants in Group A receive the drug whenever they report depressive symptoms to the experimenter; participants in Group B receive nothing when they report depressive symptoms to the experimenter. After a month of this procedure, participants in Group A report significantly fewer symptoms of depression.
In the accompanying study, Group A is the:
experimental group

A researcher wishes to study the effect of a new drug on symptoms of depression. Research participants are randomly assigned to two groups. Participants in Group A receive the drug whenever they report depressive symptoms to the experimenter; participants in Group B receive nothing when they report depressive symptoms to the experimenter. After a month of this procedure, participants in Group A report significantly fewer symptoms of depression.
A serious flaw of the accompanying study is that it:
is not a double blind design

a recent study of informed consent forms showed that:
many research participants don’t understand them

for people to decide about participating in psychological research, they must be given full knowledge of the nature of the study and their rights. this principle is called:
informed consent

the principle of informed consent assumes that
the participant can understand the explanation

imagine that there is a statistically significant result found in a well-designed experimental research project without any confounding variables. the most appropriate conclusion would be that:
differences in the dependent variable are likely due to the independent variable

as a general rule, if the sample is large, the difference between groups is large, and the range of scores within a group is small, then the results are likely to be:
statistically significant.

One hundred psychiatric patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups. One group received a new drug in pill form. The other group was given identical-looking placebo pills. All participants were evaluated for level of agitation by a panel of psychiatrists who didn’t know which pill they received. What is the control group?
the one who got the placebo

a person with an anxiety disorder receives treatment. because of the treatment, the person’s anxiety level is lower, but he still finds it almost impossible to live a normal life. for this person, the improvement in the anxiety disorder is;
statistically significant

of the following choices, the best way to select a random sample of 10 students from a class would be:
-choose the first 10 to enter the classroom.
-choose the last 10 to leave the classroom.
-write each student’s name on a piece of paper, put the papers in a pile, close your eyes, and pick 10 papers.
-ask students what their ethnicity, grade point average, and academic major are, then be sure your sample reflects all of these student characteristics.
write each students name of a piece of paper, put the papers in a pile close your eyes, and pick ten papers

not all participants are the same. researchers use ____ to reduce the possibility that preexisting differences between groups are responsible for observed differences after experimental manipulation.
random assignment

to accomplish random assignment, one could assign participants to groups by:
flipping a coin and determining group assignment

One hundred psychiatric patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups. One group received a new drug in pill form. The other group was given identical-looking placebo pills. All participants were evaluated for level of agitation by a panel of psychiatrists who didn’t know which pill they received. In this study, how could experimenter bias be reduced?
by having researchers who don’t know who got which pill

russ wants to be a good participant. he knows that his professor is an environmentalist, so his answers on the survey reflect a pro-environment position. this is an example of:
subject bias

a “fake” pill used as the control condition in a drug study is a :
placebo

a researchers expectations about a study can affect its outcome. the type of research design used specifically to address this problem is a:
blind design

a researcher trying to eliminate the rosenthal effect would be sure to:
use a blind study

the rosenthal effect:
should be avoided by using a blind study

In preparation for a study of the effectiveness of an antischizophrenia drug, an assistant puts all drugs into capsules of the same color and codes them. The assistant will have no part in administering the drug. Neither the subjects nor the experimenter will know who gets which drug. This is an example of a:
double blind study

the function of a double blind study is to guard against:
participant and experimenter expectancies

a therapist believes so strongly in her approach that she find improvement even when none exists. which design would prevent this problem?
double blind

in an experiment on the effects of two new drugs on mood, neither patients, researchers, more those who are evaluating mood of patients know which drug the patients are receiving are getting. the study is ____-blind.
triple

what is the term for studies that have the structure of experiments except that they use groups that already exist instead of randomly assigning participants to control and experimental groups?
quasi-experimental

which of the following distinguishes a quasi-experimental study from a true experiment?
-The quasi-experiment does not use a control group.
-The quasi-experiment uses multiple groups for comparison.
-The quasi-experiment does not use any experimental control.
-The quasi-experiment does not allow for manipulation of the independent variable.
the quasi-experiment does not allow for manipulation of the independent variable

to study some gender differences, a researcher selected a group of 10 men and 10 women and treated all participants exactly the same. each participant was given a test of psychological function. this study is an example of a:
quasi-experimental study

which of the following would most appropriately be studied using a quasi-experimental design?
-the effects of running and weight lifting on mood
-the effects of schizophrenic parents on children’s adjustment
-the effects of a parental training program on children’s achievement
-the effects of a support group in helping people lose weight
the effects of schizophrenic parents on childrens adjustment

if one were studying the hypothesis that people with high levels of stress are more likely to get cancer and wanted to include a matched control group, that group would:
have low levels of stress

if researchers using matched control subjects find that abused children are sadder than nonabused children, we know that:
abuse is probably what is causing the difference in sadness between these groups

the form of experiment used most often to study the psychological effects of unusual or unpredictable events is:
natural

which of the following would be least appropriately studied, using a natural experiment?
-the effects of premarital abstinence on later sexual functioning
-the effects of war on children in Kosovo
-the effects of a plant closing on community cohesiveness
-the effects of a particularly harsh blizzard on depression
the effects of premarital abstinence on later sexual functioning

which of the following would be the best design to study the effects of disaster on survivors?
-an experiment
-a quasi-experiment
-a natural experiment
-a double-blind strategy
natural experiment

“Why do we do natural experiments?” asks a friend of yours. “After all, each disaster that causes a natural experiment is unique.” A good answer to your friend would be, “Using natural experiments, researchers have learned quite a lot about:
stress disorders

which of the following might be an example of an analogue experiment?
-exposing laboratory rats to high levels of stress to see if they develop signs of “depression”
-having human participants live for a week in a simulated mental hospital to see how they respond
-exposing lab rats to high levels of stress and having human participants live in a simulated mental hospital would each be an example of an analogue experiment
-None of the answers is correct.
exposing lab rats to high levels of stress and having human participants live in a simulated mental hospital would each be an example of an analogue experiment

which of the following is an analogue study?
-studying children in their classrooms
-studying the effects of stress in nonhumans
-studying the effects of metaphors on memory
-studying the elderly in nursing homes
studying the effects of stress in nonhumans

a researcher is interested in the effects of a new drug for treating anxiety and decides to study it in rats by conditioning in them the fear of high pitched noise and then testing the rats reactions with and without the drug. this is an example of :
analogue experiment

in order to justify analogue experiments with animals, researchers must:
balance the suffering of the animals with the knowledge being gained

seligman’s study in which he created learned helplessness in the lab is an example of an ___ study
analogue

experimenters are generally willing to:
subject animals to more discomfort than humans

which of the following is the best example of baseline data in a single-subject design?
-how well the treated behavior generalizes to a non-treatment setting
-the level of the treated behavior just as treatment is ending
-how long the treatment is maintained
-the level of behavior before treatment begins
the level of behavior before treatment begins

In single-subject experimental designs, the participant is observed and measured before the manipulation of an independent variable. This initial observation period is called the:
baseline period

imagine that you are doing an ABAB reversal design study in which you are measuring level of depression with and without the addition of an exercise program. What is the first “A” in the study?
depression

Imagine that you are doing an ABAB reversal design study in which you are measuring level of depression with and without the addition of an exercise program. What is the second “B” in the study?
exercise

if a participant’s self-stimulation is observed, punished, observed again without punishment, and punished again the design is an:
ABAB reversal

if a classmate of yours says “the problem with single subject experiments is that there is no control group, so you don’t know if the treatment is effective.” your best reply is
if you use a reversal design, then participants serve as their own control

A clinician using an ABAB design to reduce the frequency of suicidal thoughts in a client finds that in the second “A” condition, suicidal thoughts remain as low as they had been at the end of the first “B” condition. The clinician can be reasonably sure that:
the independent variable is not controlling the suicidal thoughts

the most accurate summary of what has happened in the US in the last years to protect the rights of human research participants would be that:
there has been important progress, but concerns still remain

which of the following is the most appropriate conclusion about new drug studies, placebo studies, symptom exacerbation studies, and medication withdrawal studies?
the studies have led to calls for greater safeguards for patients

A researcher randomly divides young women suffering from anorexia into two groups. Participants in Group A receive psychotherapy and drug treatments; participants in Group B receive attention (but no therapy) and a “sugar pill.” The researcher then compares participants in the two groups on relief of anorexia symptoms.

The preceding experiment is an example of what research design?

experiment

A researcher randomly divides young women suffering from anorexia into two groups. Participants in Group A receive psychotherapy and drug treatments; participants in Group B receive attention (but no therapy) and a “sugar pill.” The researcher then compares participants in the two groups on relief of anorexia symptoms.
one important criticism of the preceding research is that it is a:
placebo study

the ethical concern about placebo drug studies such as the preceding study, is that:
the placebo group gets no treatment at all

which of the following is true about case studies and single subject designs?
-Single-subject designs have more internal validity.
-Single-subject designs have more external validity.
-Case studies have more external validity.
-Case studies have more internal validity.
single subject designs have more internal validity

“isn’t the ABAB design pretty much a case study?” asks a friend of yours in this class. your best answer would be:
they’re similar, but the ABAB design has greater internal validity

there are many obstacles that hinder psychologists attempt to understand and treat disorders. all of the following are obstacles except:
-respecting the rights of human participants and nonhuman subjects in research.
-participants’ and researchers’ awareness of and expectations about research.
-the relatively rigid, unchangeable behavior and thought patterns of humans.
-All the answers are correct.
the relatively rigid, unchangeable behavior and though patterns of humans

which of the following is a false statement regarding the obstacles that clinical scientists face in studying psychological disorders?
-The level of self-awareness that humans possess may influence the results.
-Humans have unusually stable (unchanging) moods and behavior.
-The causes of human functioning are complex.
-Ethical considerations limit the kinds of studies that can be done.
humans have unusually stable moods and behaviors

various obstacles interfere with the study of abnormal psychology. all of the following are example, except:
-Most clinicians oppose the scientific study of their discipline.
-Human beings are complex.
Self-awareness may influence the -results of the study.
-Clinicians have a special relationship with their research subjects.
most clinicians oppose the scientific study of their discipline

when more than one research method produces similar results, we:
can have more confidence in the results

which of the following is the best way for clinicians to come to an understanding of abnormal behavior?
to rely on findings that have been supported by multiple research methods

once a study in abnormal psychology finds significant results:
we must ask a number of questions about the details of the study

the correlational method of research may include all of the following except:
-epidemiological studies.
-longitudinal studies.
-testing the correlation coefficient for statistical significance.
-ABAB (reversal) studies.
ABAB reversal studies