A & P Chapter 13

question

The spinal cord is part of the ________ nervous system.
answer

central
question

Anesthetics administered into the epidural space are advantageous because __________.
answer

the effect is localized and only sensory
question

Tom is a football player who gets hit hard from behind along his spine. About a week later, he is diagnosed with bacterial meningitis, an infection of the CSF carried through the bloodstream. Given that the infection was associated with blood, which hypothesis is most likely to have occurred?
answer

The pia matter tore away from the spinal cord, damaging the associated blood vessels, which leaked into the subarachnoid space
question

The dorsal root ganglia consist mainly of __________.
answer

cell bodies of unipolar neurons
question

The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is confined between the __________ and the __________.
answer

pia mater; arachnoid mater
question

Spinal nerves are
answer

both sensory and motor.
question

The dorsal root ganglia mainly contain
answer

cell bodies of sensory neurons.
question

The spinal cord consists of four regions and ________ segments.
answer

thirty-one
question

The dorsal root of a spinal nerve contains
answer

axons of sensory neurons.
question

The ventral root of a spinal nerve contains
answer

axons of motor neurons.
question

The tough, fibrous, outermost covering of the spinal cord is the
answer

dura mater.
question

If the dorsal root of a spinal nerve is severed,
answer

sensory input would be blocked.
question

The subdural space lies between
answer

the dura mater and the arachnoid mater.
question

The layer of the meninges in direct contact with the spinal cord is the
answer

pia mater
question

A dorsal and ventral root of each spinal segment unite to form a
answer

spinal nerve.
question

In meningitis,
answer

inflammation of the meninges occurs. viruses can be the cause. CSF flow can be disrupted. bacteria can be the cause. All of the answers are correct.
question

In an adult, the conus medullaris is found at about
answer

L1
question

Bill contracts a viral disease that destroys cells in the posterior gray horns in his spinal cord. As a result, which of the following would you expect?
answer

Loss of sensation in his torso
question

The condition in which a person loses all feeling and movement of the arms and legs due to spinal cord injury is termed
answer

quadriplegia.
question

The dorsal root contains ________ neurons.
answer

sensory
question

During the procedure known as a(n) ________, a needle is inserted into the subarachnoid space in the inferior lumbar region.
answer

lumbar puncture
question

The major anatomical difference between gray matter and white matter is __________.
answer

the presence of myelinated axons
question

The __________ gray horns contain sensory nuclei.
answer

posterior
question

The posterior horns of the spinal cord contain mainly
answer

sensory nuclei
question

Nerve tracts or fasciculi make up the
answer

white columns.
question

The white matter of the spinal cord contains
answer

bundles of axons with common origins, destinations, and functions.
question

As they were examining Joe in the ER, Joe was poked with a pin in a sequential pattern from his chest down to his abdomen. Joe could feel the pinpricks until just inferior to his navel, but then nothing below that. What root into the spinal cord is this sensory information traveling through?
answer

through the ventral ramus into the dorsal root ganglion
question

Which nerve plexus is most likely impacted by Joe’s injury?
answer

lumbar
question

Both poliomyelitis and Guillain-Barré syndrome can involve paralysis where control over skeletal muscle function is lost. What is the neurotransmitter that a motor neuron uses to communicate with a skeletal muscle?
answer

acetylcholine
question

Which of the following nerves do not innervate the ankle and the foot?
answer

fibular nerve a branch of the sciatic nerve sural nerve All of these nerves innervate the ankle and the foot.
question

Which of the following nerves is not part of the sensory innervation in the hand?
answer

musculocutaneous nerve
question

Shingles that manifest themselves in close proximity to the umbilical region stem from an infection within spinal nerves emerging from which spinal segments?
answer

thoracic
question

The ________ of each spinal nerve innervates the skin and muscles of the back.
answer

dorsal ramus
question

Neuronal pools are described as __________.
answer

functional groups of interconnected neurons
question

While building a doghouse, Tom misses the nail and hits his thumb with the hammer instead. The pain sensation is immediate and intense. Which of the following is the pattern of neuronal pool interaction most likely to process that sensation?
answer

serial processing
question

You are sitting at a Mexican restaurant waiting for your food. The waiter brings a very hot plate, telling you to be careful about touching it. You touch it anyway, producing a pain sensation in your fingers, a withdrawal of your hand, and an auditory comment of what you are thinking. This scenario represents a ________ neuronal circuit.
answer

parallel
question

Interneurons are organized into functional groups called
answer

neuronal pools.
question

Which of these is NOT one of the essential components of a monosynaptic reflex?
answer

integration processing in the CNS
question

A reflex arc always includes a(n) __________.
answer

sensory receptor afferent axon efferent axon All of the listed responses are correct.
question

All of the following are true of neural reflexes except that they
answer

cannot be modified by the brain.
question

Reflexes based on synapses formed during development are ________ reflexes.
answer

innate
question

Reflexes can be classified according to all of the following except
answer

whether they are sensory or motor.
question

The neural “wiring” of a single reflex is called a(n)
answer

reflex arc.
question

________ reflexes activate skeletal muscles.
answer

Somatic
question

The most complicated spinal reflexes are called
answer

intersegmental reflex arcs
question

You have a pair of new sneakers. As you walk along the corridor, your foot catches. Immediately, your body responds and you are able to catch yourself before falling. Which reflex was executed?
answer

crossed extensor reflex
question

The polysynaptic reflex that limits muscle tension is the __________ reflex.
answer

tendon
question

The ________ reflex complements the flexor reflex by activating contralateral muscles.
answer

crossed extensor
question

The flexor reflex
answer

moves a limb away from a painful stimulus.
question

Reflexes that activate muscles on the opposite side of the body as the stimulus are called
answer

contralateral.
question

Reflexes that activate muscles on the same side of the body as the stimulus are called
answer

ipsilateral.
question

Which of the following is an example of the brain modifying reflex patterns?
answer

when someone holds their breath when a person deliberately walks on hot coals when someone keeps postponing emptying a full urinary bladder All of the listed responses are correct.
question

Clenching the fists often enhances the knee jerk reflex. This is an example of __________.
answer

reinforcement
question

Which of the following is not true about a positive Babinski reflex?
answer

why you close your eyes when you sneeze
question

What type of information is communicated through the ventral root of the spinal cord?
answer

Somatic motor Visceral motor
question

Sensory information entering the dorsal ramus of the spinal nerve is most likely coming from which part of the body?
answer

Exteroreceptors on back
question

Damage to which branch of the spinal nerve is likely only to have an effect on the muscles of the limbs?
answer

The ventral ramus

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member