A History of Western Music

Flashcard maker : Robert Lollar
realism
Nineteenth-century movement in art, literature, and OPERA that sought to depict the reality of everyday life, including common people and their concerns. See also VERISMO.
Richard Wagner
One of the most influential musicians of all time because of his emphasis on music as the servant of drama, his use of leitmotivs as an organizing principal, and his creative manipulation of chromatic harmony had a profound and far-reaching impact on may later composers. Ex. Tristan and Isolde
Gesamtkunstwerk
(German, \”total artwork\” or \”collective artwork\”) Term coined by Richard Wagner for a dramatic work in which poetry, scenic design, staging, action, and music all work together toward one artistic expression.
opera bouffe
ROMANTIC operatic GENRE in France that emphasized the smart, witty, and satirical elements of OPÉRA COMIQUE.
Leitmotiv (leitmotive)
(German, \”leading motive\”) In an OPERA or film score, a MOTIVE, THEME, or musical idea associated with a person, thing, mood, or idea, which returns in original or altered form throughout.
Giuseppe Verdi
As central to Italian opera as Wagner was to German opera. One of his most effective tools, and a prime reason for his enduring popularity, was his ability to capture character, feeling, and situation in memorable melodies that sound both fresh and familiar. Ex. La Traviata
verismo
(Italian, \”realism\”) (1) Nineteenth-century operatic movement that presents everyday people in familiar situations, often depicting sordid or brutal events. (2) More broadly, term used in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries for OPERAS that turned away from Romantic idealism and reliance on conventions. See also REALISM.
lyric opera
ROMANTIC OPERA that lies somewhere between light OPÉRA COMIQUE and GRAND OPERA.
cabaret
Type of nightclub, first introduced in nineteenth-century Paris, that offered serious or comic sketches, DANCES, songs, and poetry.
cafe-concert
Type of dining establishment, prominent in late-nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century Paris, that combined the food and drink of a café with musical entertainment, usually songs on sentimental, comic, or political topics.
revue
Type of musical theater that includes a variety of DANCES, songs, comedy, and other acts, often united by a common theme.
Piotr Tchaikovsky
Most prominent Russian composer of the 19th century. Sought to reconcile the nationalist and internationalist tendencies in Russian music. The most important composer in the history of ballet. Ex. Swan Lake
octatonic scale (octatonic collection)
A SCALE that alternates WHOLE and HALF STEPS.
whole-tone scale (whole-tone collection)
A SCALE consisting of only WHOLE STEPS.
operetta
Nineteenth-century kind of light OPERA with spoken dialogue, originating in OPÉRA BOUFFE.
vaudeville
In late-nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century America, a type of variety show including musical numbers, but without the common theme of a REVUE.

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