15.1 Introduction to Psychological Disorders

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Psychological disorders
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a syndrome marked by a clinically significant disturbance in an individual’s cognition, emotion regulation, or behavior.
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medical model
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the concept that disease, in this case psychological disorders, have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and, in most cases, cured, often through treatment in a hospital.
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Epigenetics
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the study of environmental influences or gene expression that occur without a DNA change.
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DSM-5
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the american psychiatric association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition; widely used system of classifying psychological orders.
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attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
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a psychological disorder marked by extreme inattention and/or hyperactivity and impulsivity.
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biopsychosocial
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An integrated understanding of psychological disorders in terms of stressful memories, evolutionary processes, and gender roles is most clearly provided by a(n) _____ approach.
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labels
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David Rosenhan conducted a study examining the biasing power of diagnostic _____.
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the effect of culture
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One of the strengths of the biopsychosocial model, in comparison to the medical model, is that the biopsychosocial model incorporates _____ into an understanding of psychological disorders.
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psychiatrists may be over-extending the bounds of normality and labeling normal behavior as a disorder.
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The DSM-5 added many new psychological disorders to its list. A criticism of this change was that:
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Schizophrenia
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_____ is a mental disorder that is most likely to lead to poverty.

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